Academic journal article Canadian Social Science

Why the U.S.-Pak Relation Lacked of Stability

Academic journal article Canadian Social Science

Why the U.S.-Pak Relation Lacked of Stability

Article excerpt


U.S.-Pak relation had fluctuated wildly. America had formed military ally with Pakistan in 1954. U.S.-Pak relation was extremely close in that period. However, U.S.-Pak relation was very tight in some eras. America had issued sanctions against Pakistan because of the nuclear problems. U.S.-Pak relation had severe concussions between intimacy and alienation, extremely unstable. What factors led U.S.-Pak relation to so unstable state. This article attempts to study some factors resulting in the U.S.-Pak relation lacked of stability. This is very helpful for us to understand the U.S.-Pak relation.

Key words: America; Pakistan; Instability; Reason The


U.S.-Pak relation fluctuated radically in the history. In the age of 1950-1960, America and Pakistan formed military allies. U.S.-Pak relation was very close in that period. Pakistan became the most allied ally of America in Asia. However, U.S.-Pak relation began to transform cold in the mid 1960's. In late 1970's, America and Pakistan had very sharp contradiction in nuclear development issue. By the end of 1979, Pakistani mobs in its capital, Islamabad, had ransacked and burned U.S. Embassy in Pakistan. U.S.-Pak relation was down to freezing point. Some days later, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. Pakistan had been the front-line state of America. U.S.-Pak relation rapidly warmed. America and Pakistan became the paramilitary allies. U.S.-Pak relation was very close in that period. But at the end of the 1980's, result in Soviet army withdrew from Afghanistan. The U.S. and Pakistan immediately broke out a severe dispute due to the nuclear development problems. American issued sanctions on Pakistan. Thus, U.S.-Pak relation was very unstable. Why the U.S.-Pak relations showed a sharp fluctuations state? There are certain structural factors in U.S.-Pak relation, caused the radical fluctuation of U.S.-Pak relation. These organizational factors mainly include the following three points: the conflict of two countries' national interests; the weak civil foundation; the asymmetry of power and influence,


national interests of U.S. and Pakistan had serious conflict. While the U.S. focus was worldwide, Pakistan's focus remained regional. (Kheli, 1982, p.151) U.S. attached great importance to the global cold war with the Union and China, could not back up the Pakistani dread against India, and also questioned the authenticity of fear against India. Pakistan attached importance the Indian invasion, was difficult to follow U.S. to contain the Soviet Union and China for a long time, and began to improve relations with the Soviet Union and China from the early 1960's. National interests between the two countries were also reflected in the orientation of the nuclear issue.

American formed an alliance with Pakistan. The main intention of America was to improve the containment system towards the Soviet Union and China, and to collect intelligence on the Soviet Union and China by using bases in Pakistan. U.S. only viewed Pakistan as its small partner. In 1963, Pakistan improved its relation with China and Soviet Union. When Pakistan changed the course of her foreign policy, the United States resented the move. (Chaudhri, 1970, p.52) So, U.S. Deputy Secretary of State George Ball warned Pakistani: "We very much hope President Ayub will not carry relations with Red China to a point where it impairs a relationship which we have." (Jain, 2007, p.48)

As for the disputes between Pakistan and India, U.S. could know Pakistani concerns about India, but could not understand the feelings of Pakistan. U.S. believed that Pakistani concerns about India were overblown. Cause India did not want to take the initiative to invade Pakistan. President Kennedy had expressed this idea. In August 12, 1963, President Kennedy met with the Secretary of state Dean Rusk and Deputy Secretary of State George Ball and other officials to discuss the problems of U. …

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