Academic journal article The South East Asian Journal of Management

The Influence of Perceived Organizational Injustice towards Workplace Personal Web Usage and Work Productivity in Indonesia

Academic journal article The South East Asian Journal of Management

The Influence of Perceived Organizational Injustice towards Workplace Personal Web Usage and Work Productivity in Indonesia

Article excerpt

(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)

The development in information and communication technologies caused the world become borderless. Nowadays the internet has become part of everyone's daily life. A person can easily access important information about what is going on in the other part of the world in seconds through computer, laptop, or smartphone which have internet connection (Malita, 2011). That is why the number of internet users has increased each year. As of 2012, the world internet users were 2.41 billion from the total population of 7.02 billion (Internet World Stats, 2012).

With the increase number of internet users everywhere in the world, companies have realized the internets' potential as a new form which leads business through different ways and also as a tool to accelerate business performances (Lim, 2002). This is because internet has played important roles in reducing costs, shortening production cycles, and promoting their goods and services in more effective way (Anandarajan, Simmers, & Igbaria, 2000).

However, with easier access and plentiful of information available in the internet, it was found that employees spent at least one hour a week or less to perform activities that were not related to the job during working hours (39%), followed by 2 hours a week (29%), 5 hours a week (21%), and 10 hours or more (3%) (Gouveia, 2012). This activity was considered working violation by the organizations because employees were using internet and mobile technology during working hours for personal purpose (Lim, 2002; Mastrangelo, Everton, & Jolton, 2006). The term used for this activity was workplace personal web usage (WPWU) (Anandarajan, Simmers, & Igbaria, 2000), or some other various terms that frequently used in different studies were cyberslacking, cyberloafing, cyber deviance, and internet abuse (Kim & Bryne, 2011).

Previous studies found that WPWU had both positive and negative effects on business performance. Aside from improving employees' performances, Coker (2011) cited that some positive effects for allowing employees with rational amount of WPWU were escalating job satisfaction or creativity (Reinecke, 2009) and overall employees become happier (Eastin, Glynn, & Griffiths, 2007).

Nevertheless, many studies considered that WPWU as a negative behavior (Lim, 2002) and could interrupt employees' performances because taking up time that should be used to accomplish the job (Coker, 2011). This was in line with the studies conducted by Malachowski (2005) which showed that WPWU had an effect on decreasing company performance. Coker (2011) also found that an employee who committed excessive WPWU (more than 12% of total working hours) would have a decline in work productivity, while Hilts (2008) stated that WPWU have a negative influence towards work productivity.

A number of studies found that one of the factors driving employees in committing WPWU was related to the perception on how superiors gave appreciation and fair treatment in the workplace (Lim & Teo, 2005) or also called inappropriate perceived organizational justice. Studies conducted by Blau, Yang, and Ward-Cook (2006) also found that employees who were unfairly treated in the organization tended to commit WPWU which was supported by the finding of de Lara (2006) on the negative influence of WPWU towards interactional justice, a dimension of organizational justice.

Indonesian internet users in 2012 had increased to 61.1 million from 42.2 million in 2010 (MarkPlus Insight as cited by eMarketer, 2013a) in which the users not only consisted of young age (15 to 19 years) but also older age group (30 to 50 years) (Lukman, 2012), the age group of productive people. Based on the 2012 Yahoo! Net Index Study, Indonesian internet users access via office was 20% in 2012 from 19% in 2010, while via mobile phone was 62% in 2012 from only 22% in 2009 (eMarketer, 2013b).

Moreover, regardless of whether Indonesian internet users were using smartphone or desktop, they would use internet for social networking and entertainment as their primarily activities, aside from for searching information and email (eMarketer, 2013b). …

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