Academic journal article The Indonesian Journal of Geography

Determination of Coastal Belt in the Disaster Prone Area: A Case Study in the Coastal Area of Bantul Regency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Academic journal article The Indonesian Journal of Geography

Determination of Coastal Belt in the Disaster Prone Area: A Case Study in the Coastal Area of Bantul Regency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Article excerpt

I. Introduction

The southern coast of Java Island is a part of the Indonesia archipelago that faces directly to the subduction zone in the Indian Ocean. Collision between the India-Australian and Eurasian Plate results in endogenic activitis cause the southern coast of Java Island being very dynamic and very common earthquake events (Figure 1).

In reducing impacts of coastal hazards, it is believed that coastal land use planning can be proposed. Wong [2009] states that "zoning is an important management tool in Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) and buffer zones can be created as transition area between different landuses and to prevent landuse conflicts". In coastal regions, coastal belt boundary can be developed in order to protect physical development near the coastlines from hazards [Katsanevakis et al., 2011]. By incorporating hazards, vulnerability and risk information, the risk based spatial plan can ensure a save and sustainable approach [Hizbaron et al., 2012]. Moreover by minimizing the exposure of people, socio-economic activities and infrastructures to natural disasters [Sutanta et al., 2012].

Coastal belt boundary development is one of the mitigation strategy applied for protecting coastal communities and preserving coastal resources from the impact of coastal hazards. It is also an approach suggested by the Protocol on Integrated Coastal Zone Management of the Barcelona Convention on 24 of March 2011 [Sanò et al., 2011] and generally accepted to be an inexpensive solution if be compared with hard structure development [Linham & Nicholls, 2010]. To calculate coastal setback lines, the use of physical coastal features are common in some countries, for instance Canada, Barbados, Aruba, Antigua, Sri Lanka, USA, Australia, Denmark, Germany, Norway, Finland, Poland, Spain, Sweden and Turkey [Linham & Nicholls, 2010].

In this research, a new method for determining coastal belt boundary was developed by applying the coastal vulnerability outcomes of the Spatial Multi Criteria Evaluation (SMCE) tool in Ilwis software. Ilwis is an acronym for the Integrated Land and Water Information System. It is a non-commercial software for Geographic Information System (GIS) with image processing capabilities [Westen, 2009]. Ilwis has been developed by the International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Enschede, The Netherlands. Moreover, the SMCE is known as a technique that assists stakeholders in decision making with respect to a particular goal.

A low lying coastal area, the coastal area of Bantul is threatened by multi-hazards [Mardiatno et al., 2009]. It is mainly affected by high waves, coastal erosion-accretion as well as tsunami, the coastal area of Bantul regency was selected for this research. Total area is about 506.85 km2, divided into 3 (three) regent assistance areas, 17 sub-districts, 75 villages and 933 hamlets. Geographically, Bantul regency lies between 072 44 04 - 082 00' 27"S and 1102 12 34" - 1102 31' 98" E (Figure 2). Administratively, the study area located among some regencies, such as Sleman is in northern side, Kulonprogo is in western side and Gunung Kidul is in eastern side. While, in southern side is facing directly to the Indian Ocean. The coastal area of Bantul regency, which has about 17 km of coastlines, consist of three sub-districts, i.e. Srandakan, Sanden and Kretek, includes 11 villages and inhabited by 84,353 people ] [BPS, 2012].

2. The Methods

This research aims to develop a method by using Spatial Multi Criteria Evaluation (SMCE) outcomes for determining the coastal belt boundary, which is a pre-described distance in which coastal processes such as hazards should be taken into account, mapped from multi-temporal aerospace images, office data, fieldwork and procedure defined by stakeholders in the coastal area of Bantul Regency.

There were four main activities employed in this research, namely the coastal variables definition and setbacks calculation method, the coastal hazard identification, data collection-processing and data analysis (Figure 3). …

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