Academic journal article Ife Psychologia

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Psychological Well-Being among University of Maiduguri Students

Academic journal article Ife Psychologia

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Psychological Well-Being among University of Maiduguri Students

Article excerpt

Boko Haram insurgents in north east Nigeria made many people seek psychiatric treatment because of psychological complications including PTSD. This cross-sectional study used a judgemental (non-probability) sampling technique, to examine post-traumatic stress disorder and psychological well-being among university of Maiduguri students. Two hundred and forty-six (141 (57.3%) males and 105 (42.7%) students with mean (x) age of 22.97 years and SD (± 4.48) participated in the study. The results showed a prevalence of 17.8% for PTSD and psychological well-being had a significant relationship with PTSD (r = .638, df = 245, P =.000). Similarly, marital status (x^sup 2^ = .000, P = .000), histoiy of sexual abuse (x^sup 2^ = .003, P = .010) and family history of mental illness (x^sup 2^ = .000, P = .000) correlated significantly with PTSD. Governments, NGOs and Health Care Providers (HCP) must help provide social support for these people, assist in the treatment (psychosocial interventions/drugs) and prevention of PTSD.

Keywords: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, psychological well-being, students, Maiduguri

Emotional disorders may follow a variety of traumatic life events. People diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder experience or witness life threatening traumatic events that elicit feelings of horror, terror, and fear (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). A diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is made when traumatic stress reactions become persistent and debilitating.

The prevalence rate of 10%-12% was reported for PTSD in the general population (APA, 1994). Similarly, Okulate and Jones (2006) found a rate of 22% for PTSD in hospitalised Nigerian army veterans. In addition, a controlled study by Iteke, Bakare, Agomoh, Uwakwe and Onwukwe (2011) reported rates of 26.7%, 8.0% and 8.7%, respectively, for PTSD among road traffic accidents victims and two groups of none victim population. However, the exact prevalence of the disorder in the community is a matter of debate.

The exact prevalence of the disorder in the community, however, remains a matter of debate. It is difficult to compare the rates PTSD because of differences in methodology, and diagnostic criteria used for the studies. In fact, some of the studies reported lifetime rates while others reported current rates of the disorder. Breslau et al. (1998) found that 11% of women, and 6% of men had a lifetime histoiy of PTSD. Kessler, Sonnega, Bromet, Hughes and Nelson (1995) found a PTSD lifetime prevalence of 7±8 % for women being twice that of men (10±4 % v. 5%).

Some risk factors predispose or precipitate PTSD in people. Kessler et al. (1995) found a high prevalence of PTSD among rape victims. Approximately, 65% of men and 46% of women rape victims met the diagnosis of PTSD at some stage in their lives. Other high-risk categories include combat or physically abused men (39% and 22%, respectively), physically abused women or women threatened with weapons (49% and 33%, respectively). Breslau et al. (1998) found that the highest risk of PTSD was associated with violent assault and rape. Adverse childhood predict future development of mental health disorders and parental psychopathology. A family history of instability is also associated with increased prevalence of PTSD (King, King, Foy & Gudanowski, 1996).

Many studies suggested familial transmission of PTSD. True et al. (1993) examined the prevalence of PTSD in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs and reported that about 30% PTSD symptoms had genetic basis. Davidson, Swartz, Storck, Krishnan and Hammett (1985) found that trauma survivors with PTSD had more parents and first-degree relatives with mood, anxiety, and substance abuse compared with trauma survivors without PTSD. More recently, Yehuda, Schmeidler, Giller, Binderbiynes and Siever (1998b) demonstrated that Holocaust survivors with PTSD were more likely to have children with PTSD, compared to holocaust survivors without PTSD. …

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