Academic journal article Asian Social Science

The Effective Occupational Socialization of Specialists: A Model and the Reality

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

The Effective Occupational Socialization of Specialists: A Model and the Reality

Article excerpt

Abstract

This article analyses the theories of the process of the specialists' occupational socialization: dispositional and role theories, microsociological approaches (phenomenological and etnometodological). Teaching, psychological and sociological approaches have been analysed. On the basis of tliis analysis, the author has developed an integrated model of the specialists' occupational socialization, in which: the interpretation of the occupational socialization concept has been given, the basic elements, stages, levels, patterns and factors affecting tliis process have been spelt out. The main features of the specialists' occupational socialization have been also considered in stages.

Keywords: occupational socialization, specialist, model, features, school, university, employer, employment

1. Introduction

Dynamism of the modern social life, extremely complex and contradictory processes of reforming the Russian society determine the increasing importance of knowledge in many problems solving. The nature, content and features of the specialist's activity develop a special type of person who is the result of a complex and complicated process of occupational socialization, during which the certain values and behaviour patterns of the occupation are adopted. The solution of various socially important problems to a large extent depends on the level of the specialists' competence, which determines their knowledge, abilities and skills. However, nowadays the process of occupational socialization is carried out ambiguously and faces the certain problems.

The features of training the modern highly-qualified specialists are to a large extent determined by the cunent trends in the science itself, the education and the labour market.

The need for studying the issues of the occupational socialization is due to the fact that, firstly, the complex and contradictory processes are carried out in the modern science: the main paradigms are revised, the applied and academic fields have been increasingly differentiated, "alternating generations" of the specialists themselves could be seen, their public image have been changed.

Secondly, due to the introduction of the Bologna process and the shift towards the double-level training system the system of the higher vocational education has been transformed (in the form of the bachelor's and master's degrees). The Introduction of competency approach is designed to increase the level of the practical training and, thus, the graduates' competitiveness. The specialists' training has been increased due to the growth in the faculties and departments at the public and private universities. All tliis poses the new requirements for the academic stage of the specialists' occupational socialization.

The studies of occupational socialization are interdisciplinary in nature, as they affect the issues of education, psychology, management, philosophy, sociology, and tliis question has been still open-ended due to the insufficient development of tliis subject.

2. Methods

The principles of the dispositional and role theories have been used as the basic approach. The nature of the investigated issue has determined the integration of the major theoretical approaches to the analysis of occupational socialization (the specific historical, system, symbolic interactionism, phenomenological, stmctural and etnometodological approaches). The works by Weber M., Bourdieu P., Cooley C., Mead G., Linton R., Parsons T., Garfinkel H., Yadov V. A have been used. The modern theoretical researches on the issues of occupational socialization by the modern Russian sociologists: Batygin G. S., Zborowski G. E., Osipov G. V., Radaev V. V., Ryvkina R. V., Shcherbina V. V. et al. have been integrated into the methodological framework.

The methods of the theoretical level have been used at all the research stages and included: the theoretical analysis of the philosophical, sociological, educational, psychological and management literature. …

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