Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Parenthood and Parenting in Modern Russia

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Parenthood and Parenting in Modern Russia

Article excerpt

Abstract

The second half of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st centuries saw massive transformations in different domains of public life which significantly affected families as well. Sociological studies have discovered behavioral norms behind relationships in families and marriages being washed out, transformation in family roles, development of new norms and principles which come as a basis for matrimonial, parent-child and intergenerational relationships. The modern society experienced a critical shift in gender roles or parents. The role of a father and a male is losing its value. Some of the reasons are that in case of divorce in Russia children most usually stay with mothers.

Russian parents inherit family practices from their own parents and modify them in accordance with their own experience and feeling what would be most beneficial for their children. Parenting styles in Russia are based on Russian mentality, way of life, traditions and current environmental situation and thus may differ from the parenting patters of other countries.To analyze transformations in parenthood and parenting in a modern Russian family the paper refers to a study "Parenthood, upbringing and childhood in a modern Russian family" (Novgorod, 2013).

Keywords: family, marriage, matrimony, parenthood, parenting

1. Introduction

Sociologists often point to significant transformations in the domains of family and marriage. One of the most recent changes observed is a growing crack between three key components which until now have made up the core of family relationships: nuptiality, sexuality and procreation (Golod, 2008; Fine & Fincham, 2013; Peterson & Bush, 2012). Minimum two relatively independent family areas have originated from this disconnection - matrimony and parenthood which causes further separation between marriage and family.

Parenthood and parenting have always made a fascinating topic for researchers from everywhere in the world. Conceptual approaches to contemporary parenthood focus on its different aspects: spouses' reproductive expectations, styles in upbringing, sharing roles and responsibilities between family members (Gurko, 2008; Nieuwenhuis, 2014). A "New household" concept lias introduced two restrictions into it: family budget and the time shared in a family. This sets up a new context where having children or not is now seen through the value of their 'utility" either as human capital, or as an opportunity to meet parents' expectations, or as a tool to pay back the costs associated with upbringing as with any other acquisitions made into a family (Nauck, 2001; Saralieva, Balabanov, & Nauck, 2009; Saralieva, Balabanov, & Nauk, 2009; Chernova & Shpakovskaja, 2013; Gurko, 2014).

2. Materials and Methods

A longitudinal study into intimate relationships and family dynamics ("Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics" (PAIRFARM) study) since 2007) in Germany has focused on the following key issues: family dynamics and partnership stability; reproductive expectations and child-bearing; parenthood and upbringing; intergenerational relationships (Working Paper No. 17 Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam) - Conceptual Framework and Design, 2013).

Multiple surveys studied how family is transformed when a child is born into it - which means a transition from partnership to parenting. Mostly, researchers were encouraged to study spouses' gender roles in upbringing; sharing responsibilities in a family and parents' employments, parental expectations from starting and bringing up a child, in-family communication and collaboration (Parker & Hunter, 2011; Gurko, 2011; Egorova & Sizova, 2014).

Studies on upbringing styles and disciplining a child, particularly those which discuss punishment/violence towards children, are steadily growing in number (Parents' Perspectives on Parenting Styles and Disciplining Children, 2013; Saralieva, Egorova, & Sud'in, 2013). …

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