Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Technology Adoption and Innovation of E-Government in Republic of Iraq

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Technology Adoption and Innovation of E-Government in Republic of Iraq

Article excerpt


Electronic government (EG) refers to a computer application employed in government activities and operations, where both government and the public are enabled to interact and transact online. The practicability of EG has not been largely explored in the context of Iraq, owing to the conflicting activities it has been experiencing in the past few years. Prior to EG adoption, variables have to be examined such as infrastructure, social factors, security, skills, users' behavior etc. The present study aims at examining the related variables that could potentially bar the EG services adoption in Iraq with the help of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). Three independent variables are examined namely effort expectancy, performance expectancy, and social influence - the influence of these variables on the EG services uses as the dependent variable is examined. The study proposes a quantitative examination of the EG services usage behavior with data gathered from Iraq. The study findings are then discussed.

Keywords: information system, electronic government, application, unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT)

1. Introduction

Electronic government (EG) refers to an electronic application that orients services to the beneficiaries in an expedient and expansive way compared to the traditional services offered by the government. Significant numbers of studies have used UTAUT but no study has employed it to examine the EG adoption among public agencies, particularly in the context of Iraq. Accordingly, the present study adopts this theory to examine EG adoption among Iraqi public agencies.

2. Electronic Government (EG) in Iraq

The general scenario in Iraq is such that the country is facing innumerable problems in the fields of education, sciences, health and e-services (Wall, 1995; Kamugisha et al., 2007; Ismail et al., 2009). Currently, Iraq had just gone through several different, beginning in the 1990s with the Gulf War to the latest skirmishes within the country's different factions. Although the consequences of war is still evident in the country, the government of Iraq is aiming to do some developments in the country's infrastructure under which e-government is one of the top priorities (Wall, 1995; UN & ESCWA, 2007). Specifically, the government plans to enable government-citizen interaction and transactions online in an extensive and expedient manner.

e-Government is expected to transform the traditional access of services into one connected to an online portal where every citizen can log onto anywhere and anytime then require. It is reasonable to state that aside from the infrastructure and financial resomces required, the success of the EG project also lies in the resolution of some social issues that can prevent EG adoption in the country. In consistent with the statement of Almutiri (2007), there are distinct factors that influence either the success or the failure of technology implementation, and these factors need determination (Chris, 1957). Accordingly, the present study investigates the factors that drive the success or the failure of EG services adoption in Iraq.

3. Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT)

A comparison between previously proposed theories and models of user acceptance was studied by Venkatesh et al. (2003) after which, they formulated the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). The theories included in their study included Davis et al.'s (1989) technology acceptance model (TAM), Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior (TPB), Ajzen and Fishbein's (1975) theory of reasoned action (TRA), Taylor and Todd's (1995) combination of TAM and TPB (C-TAM-TPB), Thompson et al.'s (1991) model of PC utilization (MPCU), Roger's (2003) innovation diffusion theory (IDT), Compeau and Higgin's (1995) social cognitive theory (SCT), and finally, Davis et al.'s (1992) motivational model. …

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