Academic journal article Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies

A Review of the Physiological Effects of Exercise Duration and Intensity during Walking and Jogging

Academic journal article Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies

A Review of the Physiological Effects of Exercise Duration and Intensity during Walking and Jogging

Article excerpt

Abstract

Jogging and walking are the most common aerobic exercises engaged in by numbers of people at different intensity and duration. The problem of this study is that most Exercisers find the choice of jogging at high intensity or walking for long duration difficult to make. This paper reviews research works on physiological effects of jogging at high intensity and walking for long duration. These include effects on cholesterol levels, blood glucose levels, cardiorespiratory fitness, weight loss, metabolic syndrome and flexibility. Past research works established that jogging which is at high intensity bums large amounts of calories and walking at long duration also burns calories and works muscles but at lower impact, making it easier on the joints, muscles and bones. Conclusively, the review submits that both forms of aerobic exercise, jogging and walking, are of great importance to human health but they differ in their levels of intensity and duration. Walking is a general form of exercise for everybody, both young and old regardless of their health status at certain duration while jogging is beneficial but should be prescribed and supervised. The paper would significantly make the choice of jogging at high intensity or walking for long duration easier for Exercisers.

Keywords: jogging, walking, intensity, duration, exercise

INTRODUCTION

Exercise is defined as any activity requiring physical effort, carried out especially to sustain or improve health and fitness, a task or activity done to practice or test a skill. Caspersen, Powell and Christenson (1985) also described exercise as a subset of physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive and has as a final or an intermediate objective the improvement or maintenance of physical fitness. Exercise is further defined as any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons including strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, as well as for the purpose of enjoyment. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system, and helps prevent the "diseases of affluence" such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and obesity (Stampfer, Hu, Manson, Rimm& Willett, 2000; Hu, Manson, Stampfer, Colditz, Liu, Solomon & Willett, 2001).Exercises are generally grouped into three types, depending on the overall effect they have on the human body (National Institutes of Health & National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2006). These are:

* Aerobic exercise which is any physical activity that uses large muscle groups and causes body to use more oxygen than it would while resting. The goal of aerobic exercise is to increase cardiovascular endurance (Wilmore & Knuttgen, 2003). Examples of aerobic exercise include cycling, swimming, brisk walking, skipping rope, rowing, hiking, playing tennis, continuous training, and long slow distance training.

* Anaerobic exercise also called strength or Resistance training can firm, strengthen, and tone muscles, as well as improve bone strength, balance, and coordination. Examples of strength moves are pushups, lunges, and bicep curls using dumbbells. Anaerobic exercise also include weight training, functional training, eccentric training, interval training, Sprinting and high-intensity interval training increase short-term muscle strength

* Flexibility exercises stretch and lengthen muscles. Activities such as stretching help to improve joint flexibility and keep muscles subtle. The goal is to improve the range of motion which can reduce the chance of injury.

Exercise Intensity & Duration

Exercise intensity refers to how much energy is expended when exercising. Perceived intensity varies with each individual. It has been found that intensity has an effect on what fuel the body uses and what kind of adaptations the body makes after exercise. …

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