Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Public Health

Detection of Helicobacter Pylori DNA in Some Egyptian Water Systems and Its Incidence of Transmission to Individuals

Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Public Health

Detection of Helicobacter Pylori DNA in Some Egyptian Water Systems and Its Incidence of Transmission to Individuals

Article excerpt

Introduction

Helicobacter pylori causes gastritis and peptic ulcers in millions of people around die world (1). It has also been involved in stomach cancer to such a level that WHO has classified it as a Class I Carcinogen (2, 3). Up to 85% of people infected with H pylori, never experience symptoms or problems (4), and acute infection can show an acute gastritis with abdominal pain or nausea (5).

According to Aziz et al.(6), "Over the preceding years and to date, the definitive mode of human infection by Helicobacter pylori has remained largely unknown". According to the investigation of many studies, contaminated water was found to be the mam causative of transmission and infection (6,7). "The infection rate is especially higher m developing countries (80-90%), where contaminated water, combined with social hardships and poor sanitary7 conditions, plays a key role " (6). This pathogen was tracked in different water systems either by cultivable, serological or molecular techniques (1, 7). However, molecular techniques proved to be the most accurate, specific and fast (7, 8). In other words, one could detect DNA from a single infectious agent, targeting highly specific genes in the H. pylon DNA like the urease gene (7, 9).

In Egypt, the River Nile is considered the main source of drinking water. It supplies 56.8 billion m3 of freshwater every7 year, which represents 97% of all renewable water resources in Egypt. Contamination of drinking water in Egypt was and still a sound problem of a very7 frightening hygiene risk, threatening the health of the Egyptian community7 (10, 11). A social problem like this should be strongly and properly faced. It was thus aimed in this study to assess the prevalence of H. pylori in different water sources in Egypt by detection of DNA. It was also aimed to measure the incidence of disease transmission to individuals.

Experimental Section

Studied areas

The study was conducted in six govemorates in Egypt (Fig. 1). All characterized by dense population and high incidence of gastric disease and cancer (12- 14). The geographic variation of studied areas is believed to be largely socioeconomic. The source of drinking water for all of them is the River Nile or its branches, except for Abu El Alatamir-Beheira and Al Sadat-Monofia. A brief illustration for each studied area is as follows:

Beheira Govemorate is located in the northern part of Egypt in the Nile Delta, and is one of largest areas with relatively poor citizens. Thus two cities were selected; Abu El Matamir and Kafr ElDawwar. The Mahmoudia canal (river) goes through Kafr el-Dawwar north to Alexandria. It branches west from the Nile and is the main source of drinking water and irrigation there.

Alexandria Govemorate is located in the northern part of Egypt, directly on the Mediterranean Sea, making it one of the most important harbours in Egypt. Sidi Bishr representing the largest district in the city7 of Alexandria was chosen for the current study. El Ebrahimia is another Alexandrian district, but a more developed than Sidi Bishr.

Monofia Govemorate is located in the northern part of the country in die Nile Delta, to the north of the capital Cairo. A1 Sadat City is located 94 kilometres north-west of Cairo, and is as one of the largest industrial cities in Egypt.

Giza Govemorate situated on the west bank of the Nile River opposite to the capital Cairo. It includes a stretch of the left bank of the Nile Valley around Giza, and acquires a large stretch of desert. El Alohandessin is a district in Giza City7, the capital of Giza Govemorate, and considered as one of the most prestigious and expensive areas in both Giza and Cairo.

Minya Govemorate located in Upper Egypt. It has great wealth of important archaeological sites and considered as an important agricultural and industrial region. Minya City7 the capital is located approximately 245 km south of Cairo on the western bank of the Nile River, which flows north through the city. …

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