Academic journal article International Journal of Psychological Studies

Eye Tracking in Neuromarketing: A Research Agenda for Marketing Studies

Academic journal article International Journal of Psychological Studies

Eye Tracking in Neuromarketing: A Research Agenda for Marketing Studies

Article excerpt


This article investigates the potential use of Eye Tracking as a neuromarketing tool and its potential for marketing in general. We sought to identify some of the main applications within the mainstream of marketing. The objective of this research was achieved by means of a conceptual literature review. The results of our research indicate important potential uses for Eye Tracking in practical marketing applications, such as brand equity, segmentation, new product development, pricing decisions, place decisions, promotion decisions, and social marketing studies. It is believed that in the near future, neuromarketing tools such as Eye Tracking will be part of mainstream marketing studies.

Keywords: neuromarketing, eye tracking, visual attention

1. Introduction

This research sought to identify some possible applications of a Neuromarketing tool (NM) called Eye Tracking (ET) in traditional areas of marketing. ET is a tool for the analysis of visual attention and from the perspective of NM, it seeks to associate visual attention with the cognitive and emotional responses of consumers. This issue has attracted increasing interest in recent years (Solnais, Andreu-Perez, Sánchez-Fernández, & Andréu-Abela, 2013). Consumer neuroscience emerged in the late twentieth century (Martinez, 2011). It deals with the conditions, the psychological significance, and the behavioural consequences that underlie consumption (Reimann, Schilke, Neuhaus, Weber, & Zaichkowsky, 2011). Consumer neuroscience incorporates both new and more traditional tools that were not commonly used for this purpose.

This paper performed a mapping of ET as a NM tool and identified possible new potential applications of this NM tool in the area of marketing. ET measures what the user is looking for (the gaze point on the screen), the eye movement in relation to the head, and pupil dilation (Zurawicki, 2010). The different ET systems are able to estimate an eye's point of attachment on a computer screen, or on the shelf of a supermarket, and may determine precisely where the user's attention is directed (Duchowski, 2003). To Hoffman and Subramaniam (1995), eye movements can be seen as an objective indicator of where a person's overt attention is focused and help to filter visual information.

For the present article, secondary sources were consulted based on available publications in major databases such as Scopus, Emerald, ProQuest, Elsevier, Springer, and Science Direct. Thus, this article has a qualitative and exploratory approach, but it is not just a literature review; it also searches to identify potential ET applications for marketing. After analysing recent publications related to neuromarketing and eye-tracking, we have selected the main issues and described some of the potential uses of ET for marketing.

In order to attain these objectives, it should be stressed that the marketing strategy begins with the market analysis that an organisation is considering, a detailed analysis of the organisation's capabilities, the strengths and weaknesses of competitors, the economic and technological forces that affect the market and the potential customers in the market. Based on consumer analysis, the organisation identifies groups, households, or companies that have similar needs. Then, one or more of these segments are selected as target markets based on the potential of the company in relation to competitors. Thus, the marketing mix is prepared: this involves determining the product characteristics, price, communication, distribution, and services that will provide more value to the customer. This set of features, which is called total product, is presented to the target market that is constantly involved in processing information and making consumption decisions (Hawkins, Mothersbaugh, & Best, 2009).

Based on these features reported by Hawkins et al. (2009), topics were listed that were considered classics of marketing and very important for the development of marketing strategies: brand equity, segmentation, product decisions, pricing decisions, place and promotion decisions, and social marketing. …

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