Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Psychiatry

Trait Mindfulness, Reasons for Living and General Symptom Severity as Predictors of Suicide Probability in Males with Substance Abuse or Dependence

Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Psychiatry

Trait Mindfulness, Reasons for Living and General Symptom Severity as Predictors of Suicide Probability in Males with Substance Abuse or Dependence

Article excerpt

Suicide attempt is the one of the most important causes of death in the world. Previous studies showed that rates of suicide attempt in individuals with substance abuse or dependence were 14 times higher than in the general population (1). It has been suggested that the association between substance abuse and dependence with subsequent suicide attempt remained stable after controlling the effects of socio demographics and comorbid mental disorders variables (2). Findings of a study on a large sample of individuals with substance use disorders (n = 5,671) showed that the prevalence of suicide attempt was 18% in a 30-day period. (3). Furthermore, previous studies showed that suicide risk remains stable after detoxification (4). Epidemiological studies revealed that 50% of the prisoners in the USA have a history of suicide attempt (5). Previous studies have shown that psychiatric disorders, prior suicide attempt and stressful events were significant predictors of suicide attempt in prisoners (6).

Most of the etiological models of suicidal behaviors in substance use disorders were focused on identification of possible psychosocial predictors of history of suicide attempt (7, 8), and we have little information about predictors or correlates of suicide probability. Suicide probability has been defined as a general tendency to kill oneself that represented as a novel severity for conceptualizing and measuring suicide risk. This construct was operationally defined by scores that patients achieved in such subscales as suicide ideation/punishment, negative self-evaluation, Hostility-impulsivity and hopelessness (9).

Identifying the predictors of suicide probability can help design preventive programs to decrease the rates of suicide attempt in individuals with substance abuse or dependence. From many correlates of suicide risk in substance abusers, mental disorders or psychiatric symptoms increase the risk of suicide (10). Furthermore, co-occurrence of other mental disorders with substance use disorders increases the rate of relapse after treatment (11). However, the association between the psychiatric symptom and the suicide risk is not a complete relationship. In other words, all substance abusers with a mental disorder do not engage in suicide behaviors. Therefore, some factors may have a protective role in the relationship between these two variables. In a cognitive behavioral model (12) a protective model for suicidal behaviors has been proposed which focused on beliefs about reasons for living. Reasons for living consisted of beliefs regarding domains such as coping and survival, family responsibility, child-related concerns, moral objection and fear of social disapproval.

Previous results showed that this belief can predict suicide attempt after 2 years in female college students (13). Most of the studies about reasons for living were conducted on individuals with mood disorders with and without suicide attempt, and they showed that some of the reasons for living contents have an association with a history of suicide attempt (14, 15, 16). However, we have enough information about the role of reasons for living in mood disorders, but we have not found any research on the role of reasons for living against suicide probability in individuals with substance use disorders (abuse or dependence). One of the aims of this study was to determine which kind of reasons for living beliefs predicts suicide probability in individuals with substance abuse or dependence disorders.

Although in clinical psychology mindfulness was regarded as a kind of awareness that was cultivated by nonjudgmental, purposeful attention (17), it could be conceptualized as a personality trait. Trait mindfulness have been defined as a state of being characterized by more frequent receptivity to internal and external stimuli as they occur, which differ from a maladjusted process like rumination and worry(17). Prior findings showed that trait mindfulness has a negative association with indexes of psychopathology and has a positive effect on mental health (18). …

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