Academic journal article Review of European Studies

Social Security in Russia: Institution-Historical and Financial Aspects

Academic journal article Review of European Studies

Social Security in Russia: Institution-Historical and Financial Aspects

Article excerpt

Abstract

The article is about the development history of social insurance institution in Russia from 17 century up to the present time. Development stages and peculiarities of material support organization to disabled people in a form of social insurance, social assistance and social aid are defined. Modern problems of social security organization are researched in Russia. Institutional forms of population social security in Russian Federation are introduced according to the kinds of social risks.

Keywords: social security institute, social insurance, social assistance, social aid, historical stages of social safety development in Russia, social risks, organization structures of population social safety in the Russian Federation

1. Introduction

Conception of social safety appeared on the basis of stable economic growth, which is typical for industrially-developed countries in 50-60th of 20th century. The system of social security which was formed in the industrial countries allowed overcoming market system fiasco consequences connected with unequal and unfair income distribution and infused feeling of safety and confidence into people. Social security is in broad context of social policy and includes social assistance and social insurance and non material forms of social warranties provided as a result of law-making process.

Concept of (social welfare) originated from more limited definition of social insurance (social insurance), appeared at the beginning of the century and in terms of it entitlement was closely connected with exact employment conditions and contributions remittal by the insured person, consequently these systems field was more limited and the volume of paid benefits wasn't large. Given conditions gradually lose its severeness as social security systems became original programs of social assistance.

Specialists of International Labor Agency consider the concept "social security" in a broad and narrow sense. In a broad sense social security suggests legislative regulation of working hours, organization and labor maintenance, labor security and working environment, labor conditions, salary etc. it means all life activity in the labor process. We should agree with the definition of social security as social economic category by V. D Roik "Social security comprises relations complex, essential connection and social subjects interests (employers and employees), social organizations and government connected with factors influence minimizing, reducing life quality (including)". Relations arising in the process of governmental protection from financial loss, as a result of income loss, this is social security in a narrow sense.

The object of this research is the financial aspect of social security in a narrow sense as relations connected with minimizing losses in case of salary loss in a form of social insurance, social welfare and social aid. As a financial category the following definition of social security is suggested: population social security finance is a money relations system of distributing character in the process of which decentralized and centralized financial resources are formed by means of taxes and payment fees which are used in a fund form in a process of social welfare and social insurance of community members and support them with social aid.

2. Methods

Let's try to consider social security and forms of its financial welfare in terms of institutionally-evolutional theory.

Government guarantees contractual practice in general but it has right to do this only if it provides complete and in time liabilities' realization-social contracts. Realizing his right to social safety organization, government makes special contract with economic subjects. This contract can be referred to the implicit type, when there is no clear definition of interaction conditions but parties rely on their specification. Such contracts have long-lasting character: social security will be provided to the citizens until it is more profitable to delegate the right of control to the government than use it themselves. …

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