Academic journal article Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies

Influence of Street Hawking on Socio-Emotional Development of Children: A Case Study of Primary School Pupils in Cross River State, Nigeria

Academic journal article Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies

Influence of Street Hawking on Socio-Emotional Development of Children: A Case Study of Primary School Pupils in Cross River State, Nigeria

Article excerpt

Abstract

Street hawking which appears to be fast becoming a culture in Nigeria has a lot of vices associated with it. Such vices are likely to affect the general standard of morality and social norms that had formed the acceptable pattern of behavior among Nigerian children if not properly addressed. This study therefore investigated the influence of hawking on socio-emotional development of the child. The study was guided by two research questions. The sampled population consists of 140primary four pupils of public primary schools in Cross River state. The data used for the study was gotten from the questionnaire composed by the researchers. The questionnaire was structured on a four point scale and the data were analyzed using mean scores: the mean of 2.50 and above shows acceptance while any mean value below 2.50 was not accepted. The findings among others revealed that Hawking has a negative effect on socio emotional development of the children. It exposes children to danger such as armed robbery, prostitution and other vices. The researchers therefore concluded that street hawking has negative influences on children's social emotional development and therefore should be discouraged. Based on the findings, recommendations were made among others that there should be advocacy campaign to educate parents and guardians on the dangers of hawking on children's development especially on their socio emotional development.

Keywords: street hawking, social development, emotional development ,development, children

INTRODUCTION

The value of children as unique gifts from God has a worldwide acceptance. In Africa, including Nigeria, children are the main yardstick with which a man's wealth and success are measured. Furthermore, children ensure not only continuity of the society but also give parents their rightful position in the society (Olaitan & Akpan, 2003). This gift of children is so treasured that people go to extremes to look for it. Any marriage without children is most often bereft of happiness and in some cases; such marriages do not last or are usually unstable in nature (Ugwu, 2007).

A child at birth is helpless and totally dependent on the adults for all its needs, which from conception, but personal uniqueness and individuality with strong and loud demands for attention care, and security. Any family, society, or nation that has no good agenda or proper plans for the children has automatically failed to secure its future existence and continuity. The continued existence and development of any society depends on the ability of the children and youths of that society to function effectively; socially; politically, economically, and religiously as members of the society. In other words, children should be capable of relating with others; participate in politics, and contribute to the economy so that they should be able to adapt to the environment in which they find themselves. This prospective enablement can be achieved if the society values the future development of children.

There are variations in the conception and definition of a child. In view of this, child and childhood are defined differently by different cultures (Melchiorre, 2004). He further stated that children's ability and maturity vary so much that defining a child's maturity by calendar age can be misleading. There is no uniform definition of a child in Nigeria. Nigeria Labour Act, NLA (2003) defines a' child as a person under the age of 18 years. The International Labour Organization, ILO (1999) defined a child as individual below 15years of age. In spite of the variations, in 'this context, children are seen as any human beings below the age of 18years. Early childhood (0-6years) has come to be recognized as a period of critical development of the human being. During this period love, care, good nutrition, a safe environment, stimulation, and encouragement are particularly critical for the individual's future life (Dixon-fyle, 2002). …

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