Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Theoretical Approaches and Principles of Cluster Structures Formation

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Theoretical Approaches and Principles of Cluster Structures Formation

Article excerpt

Abstract

Relevance of the research subject is determined by an increasing role of production clusters in conditions of transition of the Russian economy to the innovative type of development that forms a basis of sustainable growth of any economic system, creates conditions for accumulation of scientific and technical potential, modernization of the industry and accelerated development of its most competitive industries.

The innovative economy represents the economy functioning on the basis of enterprise networks as innovative cooperation between the enterprises and the organizations mainly provides an exchange of new knowledge and technologies forms the investment and innovative environment. In this regard the research objective is development of theoretical approaches and principles of formation and development of cluster structures.

Keywords: cluster, cluster formation, cluster interaction, intra cluster integration, cluster approach

1. Introduction

Cluster approach to structuring of the economy, justification of strategies of the regional production policy and increase of competitiveness of economic systems is widely accepted in developed countries. As global experience shows, activation of innovative processes in the economy and, therefore, strengthening of competitive advantages of economic systems of all levels is provided immediately through substantial interaction of certain managing subjects (enterprises, firms, public authorities), i.e. through formation and functioning of production clusters of the innovative type.

Currently, the approach to the regional development, based on clusters, is getting recognition in Russia. In this regard, we consider it is necessary to analyze approaches to cluster definition with designation of its basic elements, to reveal necessary conditions and basic advantages of cluster interaction, to define principles of interaction of enterprises in a cluster system.

2. Materials and Methods

Works of outstanding economists on studying of the regional development issues and cluster strategies formed a theoretical and methodological basis of this research. The theoretical base of the cluster concept was put at the beginning of the XIX century in works on economy of agglomeration of Von Thunen (von Thünen, 1966) and his follower, (Weber, 1909). Cluster approach has the basis in works of A. Marshall and J. Schumpeter (Alfred, 1909; Schumpeter & Joseph, 1934; Tolenado, 1978, pp. 149-158; Soulie, 1989; Dahmen, 1950; Feldman & Audretsch, 1999, pp. 409-429; Afanasyev & Myasnikova, 2005, pp. 75-86; Tsikhan, 2003; Winters, 2014; Collart, 2014; Abidin, 2014; Lin, 2013; Cummings & Worley, 2014; Walras, 2013; Mäler & Maler, 2013; Barbier, 2013; Gwartney, 2014 etc.)

The methodical basis of work is formed by traditional methods including general scientific methods (dialectic, deduction and induction, analysis and synthesis) which helped to analyze approaches to a cluster concept, its essential features, and also economical and statistical methods (comparison, grouping, analysis) which helped to designate the major factors defining intra cluster interaction of firms to identify and group the principles of intra cluster interaction.

3. Results and Discussion

In the economy the concept "cluster" was for the first time introduced by the American economist Michael Porter in 1990 who gives the following definition to a cluster: "The cluster is a group of geographically adjoining interdependent companies and related organizations operating in the particular sphere and being characterized with a shared activity and complementary to each other". (Porter, 2005). M. Porter paid attention to the fact that one or several firms, reaching competitiveness in the world market, extends the influence on the community: suppliers, consumers and competitors. In turn, progress of the community has positive impact on further growth of competitiveness of this company. …

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