Academic journal article Review of European Studies

Humanization of Education in the Context of Janusz Korczak Pedagogical Ideas

Academic journal article Review of European Studies

Humanization of Education in the Context of Janusz Korczak Pedagogical Ideas

Article excerpt


The article investigates the problems of humanization of education. It updates the main objectives and results of this process: direction of the process of children's training and education in the development of the individual as an active subject of his perfection; change of the relationship in the dyad "adult-child" , in which each respects the dignity of the person and another takes his goals, needs and interests. As the education paradigm shift factor in modern Russia a positive educational experience is named. The article reveals the pedagogical concept and practice of a prominent Polish humanist educator Janusz Korczak. His ideas became the basis for the establishment in 1993 of Korczak integration camp "Nash Dom" ("Our House"). Educational work in the camp is built on the ideas of J. Korczak intrinsic value of childhood, child rights, the dialogue between adults and children as their dominant relationship of forgiveness as a basic principle of academic work, the attitude to the child not as an abstract figure, but as a particular person and his real life. The authors describe a 23-year-old experimental work of this camp, forms and methods of humanization of childhood space.

Keywords: Janusz Korczak, holistic system of education, childhood, the right to be respected for, self-organization, integration camp "Nash Dom"

1. Introduction

1.1 Actualization of the Problem

Eradication of authoritarianism in any form of education was a core idea of the pedagogical theory of the 20th century. It still remains the most topical issue of pedagogy. Achievement of this goal is closely linked with the personality of an educator, his/her skills, and will power. Ability of the educator to build good relations with his/her students is even more important than adopted methods of teaching, or perfect school buildings or state-of-the art facilities. In the global educational space there is currently a change of ideas about the nature and purpose of education. This causes the need to find new approaches to the organization of educational process, determining how to enable self-development and self-realization of children. The democratization of national systems leads to a paradigm shift of education, in which the person becomes more active subject of reforms in education. However it's necessary to consider that in the last quarter of the twentieth century, the world has undergone profound changes resulting from globalization. In this process, integration becomes the cornerstone of all changes in education. This leads to introduction of national education systems in a continuous process of reform with its main objective to improve the quality of education in the process of dialogue between different national education systems. Modern society is increasingly imperative in education of active, creative, internally free man who is aware of his worth and uniqueness and able to live in freedom, based on universal values, the relationship with the world and the achievements of civilization.

1.2 Explore Importance of the Problem

In this regard, relevant to modern Russian education is international experience, having constructive ideas of the humanistic oriented pedagogy. In the light of these provisions it's quite justified to appeal to the specific humanistic educational systems, developed and implemented throughout the twentieth century and have proved their efficiency in the process of interaction with various national educational systems. For Russian pedagogy-its history and present-one of the most significant was the theoretical understanding and practice of the prominent Polish educator and writer Janusz Korczak (1878 - 1942). He was the director of the orphanage in Warsaw, which provided security for every child, which was a unique phenomenon in pedagogic life of the XXth century Europe. In 1942 the Nazis doomed educators and 200 children from the Jewish orphanage managed by Korczak to death in a gas chamber of the camp Treblinka. …

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