Academic journal article Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology

Personality Characteristics and Identity Styles of Iranian Students

Academic journal article Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology

Personality Characteristics and Identity Styles of Iranian Students

Article excerpt

Identity formation is one of the main evolutionary challenges during teenage years. Identity is thought of as an understanding of oneself which is the result of the combination of the past, present and future experiences (Erikson, 1968). (Burke, 1997) considers the process of identity as one of control - especially a system of comprehension control. Based on this theory, identity is a collection of notions employed for 'self in a social role or situation, which defines the individual and is used as the norm or reference (Stets & Tsushima, 2001). Marcia describes for identity base (achievement, moratorium identity status, foreclosure identity status, diffusion identity status), which are based on the amount of exploration or commitment that a teenager experiences or has experienced (Crocetti, Rubini, Berzonsky, & Meeus, 2009). Also, (Berzonsky, 2003) considers the concept of identity, a theory about self and believes that there are theoreticians who are entangled with the theoretical reasoning related to them. Berzonsky has identified three styles of theory developments which are: informational normative and diffuse / avoidant.

People with achievement identity status employ what is called informational style (Berzonsky & Neimeyer, 1994; Streitmatter, 1993). Facing identity related issues, these individuals act rationally and show significant mind endeavor. Also, they have goal oriented search and evaluation and show trust towards the information regarding them. Moreover, they have a skeptical stance to their own viewpoint and delay their judgment willingly (Berzonsky, 1990). This identity style appears to be in positive relationship with wellbeing, adaptation, conscientiousness and agreeableness (Berzonsky & Kuk, 2000; Dollinger, 1995; Nurmi, Berzonsky, Tammi, & Kinney, 1997). People with normative identity style through internalizing others' beliefs and values and not employing self-evaluation, automatically face the issues regarding identity (Berzonsky, 1990). In diffuse / avoidant identity style, individuals try to avoid dealing with issues of individual, conflicts and decision making. It seems that this identity style is in positive relationship with neuroticism, depressant reactions and non-confirmatory decision makings and in negative relationship with cognitive resistance, self-awareness, and conscientiousness and wellbeing indexes (Berzonsky, 1990; Berzonsky & Ferrari, 1996). In fact, people with diffuse / avoidant identity style use logical methods in information processing to a lower extent (Soenens, Duriez, & Goossens, 2005).

One of the main influential aspects in identity is character and its components. (Costa Jr & McCrae, 1990) define the character features of an individual on differences dimensions as shown in the stable patterns of thought, feelings and action. The role of character features in identity evolution, which has been studied by (Grotevant, 1987). He suggests that one's flexibility, openness to experience, self-esteem and self monitoring improves the evolution of identity during lifetime. There have been numerous studies regarding the relationship between the character features (conscientiousness, openness to experiences, agreeableness, neuroticism and extraversión) and identity styles indicating that the informational identity style is in positive relationship with cognitive complicatedness, purposeful decision making, conscientiousness, admittance and successful identity (Berzonsky & Kuk, 2000). Also, conscientiousness is related to some of the features of functions such as endeavor for success, discipline and accountability (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2003) . Studies show that normative individuals are dutiful and compatible and have a positive feeling toward wellbeing, but they are not very tolerant of ambiguity and they act closed dealing with the information, which challenges their value systems and individual beliefs (M. D. Berzonsky & Kuk, 2000; Dollinger, 1995; Nurmi etal. …

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