Academic journal article Canadian Social Science

The Old-Age Plight of the Peasants and Herdsmen in the Mongolian Inhabited Poverty Area and the Countermeasures: A Field Investigation Based on 11 Villages (Gacha) in 5 Counties, Tongliao City, Inner Mongolia

Academic journal article Canadian Social Science

The Old-Age Plight of the Peasants and Herdsmen in the Mongolian Inhabited Poverty Area and the Countermeasures: A Field Investigation Based on 11 Villages (Gacha) in 5 Counties, Tongliao City, Inner Mongolia

Article excerpt

Abstract

Currently, the peasants and herdsmen in the Mongolian inhabited poverty area in Tongliao City, Inner Mongolia are facing the old-age plights such as traditional family and land supports for the aged continue to weaken; the poverty extent of the peasants and herdsmen is deep and their ability to resist risk is weak; the public pension service is inadequate, and the level of social security is low, etc. To resolve these problems, we should speed up economic development, increase peasants and herdsmen's income, and improve their pension security abilities; we should increase national investment in poverty counties, making efforts to enhance the development force of the Mongolian area; we should complete pension security system of the agricultural and pastoral area, improve basic public services, put traditional family support into good use, improve self-support ability of peasants and herdsmen, give full play of land efficiency, and improve the land support capacity for the aged.

Key word: Mongolian inhabited area; Poverty; Peasants and herdsmen; Old-age security

The social security issue of the ethnic minority regions is related to the economic and social harmony, stability and development of the ethnic minority regions. To understand the current pension situation and plight of the peasants and herdsmen in the Mongolian inhabited poverty area, the author has conducted a field investigation in 5 counties of 11 administrative villages where the Mongolian are relatively concentrated, including Kezuozhong County, Kezuohou County, Naiman County, Kulun County, and Zhalute County, and has concluded that currently the Mongolian inhabited area in Tongliao City does not shake off poverty as a whole. Compared with the developed areas, the pension dilemma faced by the peasants and herdsmen is more serious and complex, which has been a major livelihood issue requiring a special concern in the construction of new rural and pastoral areas.

1. THE POVERTY SITUATION OF MONGOLIAN INHABITED AREA

Tongliao City in Inner Mongolia is the area where the Mongolian nationality is the most concentrated in our country. At present the city has a Mongolian nationality population of 1.44 million people, taking 46 percent of the total population. The elderly population in the agricultural and pastoral area is 221 thousand, accounting for two-thirds of the city's elderly population.1 Since the reform and opening up, although the Mongolian inhabited area in Tongliao City has achieved a rapid development with a consistent increase in peasants' income, a substantial increase in living standard, and a growing prosperity in various social undertakings, the Mongolian inhabited area in the city has not yet fundamentally been out of poverty.

1.1 The Poverty Scale of the Mongolian Inhabited Area and the Impoverished Population Is Large, the Poverty Level Is Deep

Currently, there is an impoverished population of 320 thousand in Tongliao City, accounting for 10% of the city's total population, out of which the impoverished Mongolian population 219 thousand, accounting for 68% of the city's total impoverished people. The Mongolian population is more concentrated in the national and regional level poverty counties (banners) of Naiman County, Kulun County, Kezuozhong County, Kezuohou County, Zhalute County and other pastoral areas and agricultural-pastoral areas. Among them, Kezuozhong County has a poverty population of 109 thousand and 336 entire poverty villages. The Mongolian poverty population is 87 thousand, accounting for 80% of the county's total poverty population and representing 48.1% of the city's Mongolian poverty population (Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region CPPCC, para. 4, 2012). At the end of 2010, the per capita net income of the peasants and herdsmen in Tongliao City is 6002.2 yuan, and the per capita living expenditure is 4264.23 yuan. Some impoverished peasants and herdsmen's sum of living expenditure, medical expenses, productive and operative expenses and their children's educational expenses are far more than their total income. …

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