Academic journal article American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal

Taxonomies of Knowledge Transfer Revisited: Towards A New Approach

Academic journal article American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal

Taxonomies of Knowledge Transfer Revisited: Towards A New Approach

Article excerpt

Abstract. Knowledge management is one of the essential areas of management. In the present world the organizations could recognize the importance of knowledge and its management. Researchers and theorists could find numerous ingredients of knowledge management process. Identification, forecasting, calculation, capturing, storing, maintaining, retrieving, transferring etc. are the crucial elements of knowledge management process. Among them knowledge transfer could achieve a huge concentration of the organizations and the researchers. This paper makes an endeavor to fill the gray areas of the taxonomies of knowledge transfer through an exploration of the existing literature. From the emerging to the termination points of knowledge, knowledge transfer may be divided into internal transfer, external transfer and terminal transfer. Future researchers may empirically investigate these newly revealed classifications of knowledge transfer.

Key Words: Knowledge, Knowledge Management, Knowledge Transfer

1 PREAMBLE

Articulation of Gettier's (1963) theory of knowledge overturn thousand years old definition on knowledge (Justified True Belief) formulated by philosopher Aristotle. Gettier (1963) argues that there should be an additional ingredient with 'justified true belief' to become knowledge (e.g. justified + true + belief + something = knowledge). With the similar voice, Nonaka & Takeuchi (1995) echo that wrong belief satisfying these three conditions cannot produce knowledge. They continue by arguing that knowledge is "a dynamic human process of justifying personal belief toward the 'truth' " (p. 58). It may be mentioned that there is no commonly accepted definition of knowledge (Hofer-Alfeis & Spek, 2002). It is also difficult to define knowledge (Gamble & Black, 2001) and the debates occupied the minds of the philosophers for many centuries (Hislop, 2005; Jashapara, 2004). Davenport and Prusak (1998) make an endeavour to define knowledge as:

"Fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual information, expert inside and grounded intuition that provides an environment and frame work for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information. It originates and is applied in the minds of the knowers. In organizations, it often becomes embedded not only in the documents or repositories but also organizational routines, processes, practices, and norms." (p. 5) .

Management communities around the world recognise and value knowledge management (Scarbrough, et al., 2005) which is moving into a new era (Takeuchi, 2001) along with its branches. Its popularity has increased significantly, especially since 1995, and it has become the elementary theme of both management philosophy and management tools (Edvardsson, 2006), with multi-dimensional and advanced approaches (Chae and Bloodgood, 2006). Knowledge management is comparatively young (Sch tt, 2003), emerging (Jashapara, 2004; Prusak, 2001; Beckman, 1999) and is a popular segment in the dictionary of management (Nan, 2008). Organisations could realise the importance of managing knowledge nowadays. It deeply focuses and relies on a strong culture of cooperative, sharing and supportive, social community, with a view to achieving organisational strategic requirements (Debowski, 2006). Knowledge management ensures superior quality and excellent productivity (Fireston and McElroy, 2005). Several theorists and researchers (Gamble and Blackwell, 2001; Zuckerman & Buell, 1998; Hasnain, 2012) have mentioned elements of the knowledge management process. For example, Gamble and Blackwell (2001) find identifying, organizing, transferring and using to be some of these elements. Zuckerman and Buell (1998) identify collection, storage, sharing, and linking as part of the process. Capture, storage, dissemination, and creation are identified as essential elements of the knowledge transfer process by Heavin and Neville (2006). Measuring and forecasting of knowledge is one the elements of knowledge transfer process (Hasnain, 2012). …

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