Academic journal article American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal

Effect of Different Seed Treatment Methods on the Germination of Senna Obtusifolia in Sudan Savanna Ecosystem, Nigeria

Academic journal article American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal

Effect of Different Seed Treatment Methods on the Germination of Senna Obtusifolia in Sudan Savanna Ecosystem, Nigeria

Article excerpt

Abstract. Breaking seed dormancy is commonly practiced in phanerogamia for seedling production but is conducted in different forms depending on the type of seed coat and other factors that hinder successful seed germinability. It is against this background that laboratory germination test was conducted at the Agric. Chemical Laboratory of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto for 36 days period and determined 3 days soaking (86.66 %), 15 minutes hot water (96.67%) and 15 minutes chemical (H^sub 2^S0^sub 4^) (73.32%) methods as the best germination test for seed germinability of S. obtusifolia. The field experiment in turn revealed that germination percentages obtained were 51.11 % at fadama habitat and also 47.22% in S. obtusifolia at upland location. These were carried out to produce good young and matured leaves samples for nutritional chemical analysis. Therefore, the best methods determined were recommended for practice in the seedling production of the study species and it's allied.

Keywords: seed treatment, germination, Senna obtusifolia, Sudan savanna, laboratory experiment, field experiment.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Senna obtusifolia (Sickle-Senna or Sickle-Pod) is part of the numerous important semi-wild plant species growing in the savanna region of Nigeria functioning as primary producer in the ecosystem. Hence, available literatures revealed that this plant species have not been domesticated on large scale, but grow largely in the wild as weeds (Bala, 2006). Synonymously known as Cassia tora, the plant was reported to be among the leafy vegetables that contribute to the rural women economy in some parts of the study area (Bello et al., 2008). The contributions of the leaves as dietary food vegetables to the populace in the study area has made this species under study very popular in the local communities of Sudan savanna of Nigeria. This assertion was supported by Bulus et al. (2007) who indicated that almost everybody are now incorporating the non-conventional (wild) food plants in their diets, to provide not only nutrients but also in the traditional treatment for various ailments. Their leaves are cooked and eaten as vegetables by majority of the rural communities in the zone (Bello, et al, 2008). The flowers, fruits and seeds are also parts of the food and sometimes used as medicine for human consumption. This species is also used as fodder for animals. In addition, it provide shade and contribute to nutrient recycling in the soil and hence soil fertility The roots, stems and leaves are equally utilized for medicinal purposes while the dry stalks as source of fuel in addition to provision of habitat to micro fauna and supply of other tangible products to man (Evans, 1982). Evans (1982) reported that almost every part of any plant (root, stem, leaf, bark, flower, fruit and seed) is known to have one form of economic benefit or the other.

Available literature reported by Tukan et al . (1998) have revealed that over the last two decades, studies have shown that wild or semi-wild plants are nutritionally important because of high contents of vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids and fibre contents. Some of these plants also enhance taste and colour in diets (Bianco et al., 1998). High protein content was also reported in some wild vegetables in Bostwana (Flyman and Afolayan, 2007).

It is against this background that the study was designed to investigate the effect of different methods of seed treatment on the germination of S. occidentalis and S. obtusifolia. This has become necessary to provide additional information on the seed germinability potentials of the selected wild plant in the study area so as to enhance it conservation and possibly domestication

2.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS

The study site was the agricultural chemical laboratory, Fadama land and upland locations in Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto located at the Northern part of Sokoto city in Wamakko local government area, Sokoto (050 10E - 050 121E longitude and latitude 130 04 0N - 130 06 40N). …

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