Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Self-Efficacy: Its Effects on Physical Education Teacher Candidates' Attitudes toward the Teaching Profession*

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Self-Efficacy: Its Effects on Physical Education Teacher Candidates' Attitudes toward the Teaching Profession*

Article excerpt

One of the basic concepts of Social Learning Theory, "self-efficacy" is defined as "one's belief in one's ability to succeed in specific situations" (Bandura, 1977, 1986). Gawith (1995) states that a person will not be able to carry out a certain task for which he has the ability unless he has the confidence to do so. Just as the self-efficacy, conceptually understood as a person's own judgment regarding her/his skills to achieve a specific thing (Zimmerman, 1995), is a factor effective on performance and making duty decisions, so is it important in setting motivation (Humphries, Hebert, Daigle, & Martin, 2012).

Self-efficacy is a concept that has been studied for a long period of time within many different disciplines, varying from medicine (James et al., 2006) to economy (Latham & Brown, 2006) and from military (Britt, Davison, Bliese, & Castro, 2004) to education (Tschannen-Moran &Woolfok Hoy, 2001).

The importance of self-efficacy in the teachinglearning process continues to be a subject attracting researchers' and practitioner's attention alike. For the last three decades, researchers have emphasized the relationship between teachers' perceived self-efficacy levels, which also include student achievement and achievement of desired results (Tschannen-Moran, Woolfolk Hoy, & Hoy, 1998). Teacher self-efficacy has therefore been the subject of many studies (Ashton & Webb, 1986; Dembo & Gibson, 1985; Gibson & Dembo, 1984; Tschannen-Moran et al., 1998). In this context, teacher self-efficacy is defined as teachers' belief in their ability to learn and use the skills required to promote their students to learn (Armor et al., 1976; Woolfolk-Hoy & Burke-Spero, 2005). Teacher self-efficacy is a teacher's belief related to his/her abilities to affect the learning outcomes of students, including both poorly-motivated students and students with disabilities (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 2001).

Teachers who hold high levels of high teacher selfefficacy are suggested to be more skillful in using teaching strategies more effectively, in ensuring that student will remain engaged, and in implementing classroom management skills (Brouwers & Tomic, 2000; Caprara, Barbaranelli, Stece, & Malone, 2006). In addition, teachers with high levels of teacher self-efficacy are reported not only to exert more effort in overcoming the problems that they encounter, but continue making such effort for a longer time (Bandura, 1977, 1986). There are differences between teachers with high and low levels of teacher self-efficacy, particularly in terms of using new teaching techniques and providing feedback to students with learning disabilities (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 2001). At the same time, teachers with high teacher self-efficacy are reported to be open to new ideas and develop a positive attitude toward teaching (Gibson & Dembo, 1984; Tschannen-Moran et al., 1998).

In the light of the above-mentioned explanations, teacher self-efficacy is seen to be considered as an important factor in the teaching-learning process (Guskey & Passaro, 1994; Soodak & Podell, 1996; Tschannen-Moran et al., 1998).

There are quite high numbers of studies addressing both teachers' and candidate teachers' self-efficacy levels within various disciplines in the education process (Akçay & Akkuzu, 2012; Ekici, 2008; Önen & Muslu-Kaygisiz, 2013; Rigg & Enochs, 1990; Yalçin, 2011). One of the fields where teacher selfefficacy has been studied is PE teaching (Block, Hutzler, Barak, & Klavina, 2013; Feltz, Short, & Sullivan, 2008; Mirzeoglu, Aktag, & Bosnak, 2007; Seçkin, 2011; Ünlü, Sünbül, & Aydos, 2008).

In studies examining self-efficacy in PE teaching, a set of factors, including both environmental factors and the active engagement of students in the learning process, are generally observed to effect self-efficacy levels of PE teachers (Martin & Kulinna, 2003; Martin, Kulinna, Eklund, & Reed, 2001). …

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