Academic journal article Journal of Nursing Measurement

Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Diabetes Self-Efficacy Scale

Academic journal article Journal of Nursing Measurement

Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Diabetes Self-Efficacy Scale

Article excerpt

Background and Purpose: No scales measure self-efficacy in women with Type 2 diabetes. A scale was developed and tested. Methods: Items generated, content validity index (CVI) assessed by experts, the 2-part Diabetes Self-Efficacy Scale (DSLF-I and DSLF-II) was piloted with 62 women, administered to 208 women, and then readministered to 30 women to determine initial reliability. Factor analysis was conducted for construct validity. Discriminant, convergent, and predictive validity was examined. Results: The CVI index was 98%. Cronbach's alphas were 0.88 (DSLF-I) and 0.82 (DSLF-II; pilot) and 0.87 and 0.86, respectively (main study); test-retest correlation was .60 (DSLF-I) and .69 (DSLF-II). There were 3 factors that emerged: diabetes knowledge of self-care activity, diabetes diet self-care, and diabetes medication self-care. Conclusions: The Diabetes Self-Efficacy Scale demonstrates good initial reliability and validity.

Keywords: instrument development; self-efficacy; diabetes mellitus Type 2; reliability; validity; factor analysis

Diabetes mellitus affects 8.3% of the population in the United States, or 25.8 million people. More than 7 million people are estimated to be undiagnosed and unaware they have the disease (Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2011). Approximately 90%-95% of persons with diabetes have Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The San Antonio Heart Study revealed a rising incidence of T2DM, with age, ethnicity, and neighborhood as significant predictors of T2DM (Burke et al., 1999).

Although T2DM affects all ethnic and gender groups, there is a disparate effect. For example, African Americans are 1.6 times more likely to have diabetes than Whites and are more likely to go undiagnosed American Diabetes Association (ADA, 2005a). Complications from T2DM are also more prevalent in minority populations (Carter, Pugh, & Monterosa, 1996). In addition, diabetic women, compared to diabetic men, have a significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease and suffer greater adverse outcomes (D'Arrigo, 1999; Gu, Cowie, & Harris, 1999; Howard et al., 1998; Smitherman & Reis, 1997). Further, Sowers (1998) reported that the gender protectiveness for coronary heart disease (CHD) declines in women between the ages of 50 and 59 years, and that the loss of gender protectiveness increases the risk ratio for CHD to 3.5 for women with diabetes compared to 2.4 for men with diabetes (p. 618). Koerbel and Korytkowski (2003) stated that women with diabetes not only have greater risk for cardiovascular disease but they also suffer greater adverse outcomes. They cite several factors, which increase this risk in women: poorer glycemic control, elevated blood pressure and lipids, central obesity, increased depression and lower socioeconomic status. These factors contribute to increased morbidity and health care costs for women with diabetes. These data support the need for more research into prevention, detection, and cost-effective methods to effectively manage T2DM and prevent its complications in women.

Maintenance of health and prevention of diabetic complications require significant changes in lifestyle management and adherence to a therapeutic diabetic regimen. Behavior change and adherence are not only difficult but are also often inadequate to maintain recommended glycemic control (Anderson, Fitzgerald, & Oh, 1993; Skelly, Marshall, Haughey, Davis, & Dunford, 1995). The importance of participation in diabetic self-care behavior in achieving glycemic control has been demonstrated by the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group (1993) for individuals with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and by the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study Group (1998) for individuals with T2DM. This goal is accomplished through a therapeutic alliance among clients, family, and health care providers to promote self-care behaviors and therapeutic modalities (ADA, 2005b). Self-care behaviors include a combination of changing or modifying eating habits, maintaining weight or achieving weight loss, participating in a physical exercise program, self-monitoring of blood glucose, and/or taking oral or injectable medication. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.