Academic journal article Journal of Nursing Measurement

Psychometric Testing of the Autonomy and Relatedness Inventory-Spanish Version

Academic journal article Journal of Nursing Measurement

Psychometric Testing of the Autonomy and Relatedness Inventory-Spanish Version

Article excerpt

Background and Purpose: The Hispanic population is the fastest growing ethnic group in the United States. There is a lack of validated health-related tools culturally and linguistically appropriate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Autonomy and Relatedness Inventory-Spanish version (ARI-S). Methods: We recruited a convenience sample of 100 pregnant Hispanic women. Results: Cronbach's alpha for the ARI-S total scale was .92. Factor analysis yielded a similar factor structure as reported with the ARI-English version. As hypothesized, the ARI-S was inversely correlated with depressive symptoms and positively correlated with social support. Conclusions: ARI-S provides a psychometrically sound method for measuring the quality of intimate relationships. This is particularly important considering the limited inclusion of Hispanic women in current research.

Keywords: Autonomy and Relatedness Inventory; intimate relationship; Hispanic; psychometric testing

The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Autonomy and Relatedness Inventory-Spanish version (ARI-S) in a group of pregnant Hispanic women. In 2011, Hispanics comprised 16.7% (51.9 million) of the total population in the United States, an increase of 48% since 2000; they are the fastest growing racial/ethnic minority group (Motel & Patten, 2013). Females constitute 49.3% of all Hispanics in the United States (Motel & Patten, 2013). Of all births in the United States in 2011, 23% were to Hispanic women, and 47% of those women were unmarried (Motel & Patten, 2013). Fertility in that year was 7.7% for Hispanics compared to 6.4% of African Americans and 6.0% of Whites (Motel & Patten, 2013). Of all Hispanics residing in the United States, 32% are female and 18 years of age or older; of these, 45.1% are immigrants (Motel & Patten, 2013).

Immigrant women, especially Mexican women, have strong ties with family members. The effect of close proximity and primary support led to consistently positive outcomes during pregnancy (Mann, Mannan, Quiñones, Palmer, & Torres, 2010; Scelza, 2011). The association between lack of support and poor health is well-established (Gress-Smith et al., 2013; Scelza, 2011; Wang, Wu, & Liu, 2003). This is particularly important for pregnant Hispanic women who are more likely to face pregnancy without close proximity of their kin support network and are more likely to be exposed to life stressors including lack of insurance, lower levels of financial resources, and increased discrimination (GressSmith et al., 2013; Singh & Lin, 2013). There is a scarcity of validated instruments in Spanish that allow researchers to assess the characteristics of a primary intimate relationship; thus, in this study, the psychometric properties of the ARI-S version were evaluated in a sample of pregnant Hispanic women.

INSTRUMENT DESCRIPTION

The Autonomy and Relatedness Inventory (ARI) is a 32-item measure designed to assess both positive and negative dimensions of any type of primary intimate relationship (e.g., partner, mother, father, or friend; Hall & Kiernan, 1992). The ARI was developed by Hall (1983) who selected items pertaining to any type of close relationship from Schaefer and Edgerton's (1979) Marital Autonomy and Relatedness Inventory; eight additional items were developed by Hall to assess support and listening. This measure was based on early definitions of social support and conceptualizations of interpersonal relationships as well as on recognition of the need to assess the unsupportive side of close relationships. The ARI has eight subscales: Acceptance, Relatedness, Support, Listening, Autonomy, Control, Hostile Control, and Detachment/Rejection.

Respondents are first asked to identify their primary intimate, defined as the most important person in their life, the person to whom they feel closest (e.g., partner, mother, father, other family member, or friend). …

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