Academic journal article Journal of Management Research

Peer Relationship Satisfaction, Self-Efficacy, and Adolescents' Suicidal Ideation in Selangor, Malaysia

Academic journal article Journal of Management Research

Peer Relationship Satisfaction, Self-Efficacy, and Adolescents' Suicidal Ideation in Selangor, Malaysia

Article excerpt

Abstract

The occurrence of suicide has become a serious phenomenon throughout the world. This study investigated the relationships between peer relationship satisfaction, self-efficacy and adolescents' suicidal ideation in Malaysia. The mediation effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between peer relationship satisfaction and adolescents' suicidal ideation was also examined. A total of 684 school-going adolescents participated in the current study. Pearson correlation and a series of multiple regression analysis were carried out to examine the mediation effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between peer relationship satisfaction and adolescents' suicidal ideation. The study revealed that peer relationship satisfaction and self-efficacy were negatively correlated with suicidal ideation. This means that adolescents who are more satisfied with their peer relationship and have higher self-efficacy tend to have lower suicidal ideation. Self-efficacy also partially mediates the relationship between peer relationship satisfaction and suicidal ideation. These findings implied that adolescents' satisfaction with peer relationship is a predictor that impact suicidal ideation, while self-efficacy plays an significant role in the relationship between peer relationship satisfaction and suicidal ideation. Intervention in planning suicide prevention programs should emphasize on both improving peer relationships and increasing self-efficacy among adolescents.

Keywords: Peer relationship satisfaction, Self-efficacy, Suicidal ideation

1. Introduction

Suicide has become a crucial problem throughout the world where more than 800,000 people died from suicide every year (WHO, 2014). More seriously, there were many more suicide attempters for each death from suicide while those with suicidal thoughts were countless. Many people who attempt suicide were from the vulnerable group such as young people (WHO, 2013). Also, Asian countries have higher risk of suicides where they accounted approximately 60% of the world suicide cases (Chen, Wu, Yousof, & Yip, 2012). While in Malaysia, the suicide rate is quite high where the National Suicide Registry Malaysia (NSRM) found that an average of 60 suicide cases happen every month (Ng, 2012). Moreover, a recent local study found out that a total of 294 adolescents out of 1441 adolescents in Malaysia were at-risk in involving in suicidal behaviour (Choon, Mansor, Siti, Hamidin, et al., 2014). This indicated that around 20% of the adolescents in Malaysia involved in suicide behaviour which makes suicide a serious phenomenon in our nation.

Suicide has become the major cause of death worldwide (Kapur & Gask, 2009). For adolescents aged 10 to 19, suicide has become their third major cause of death (WHO, 2014). Suicidal ideation is the thoughts or desires of one to take own life. It is a major predictor of suicidal planning and attempts (O'Carroll et al., 1996). Thus, identifying factors that predict suicidal ideation may help in the prevention of suicidal attempts which eventually decreases suicidality among adolescents.

Suicidal ideation amongst adolescents is often linked to various factors including self and peers. Peers play a very important role in adolescents' life. Adolescents who are more satisfied with their peer relationships tend to be happier (Demir, Ozdemir, & Weitekamp, 2007). In contrast, adolescents who are dissatisfied with their peer group have higher probability of engaging in suicidality (Tze-Chun et al., 2009). Local study revealed that having close friend protect adolescents from suicidality (NoorAni, Cheong, Nurashikin, & Azriman, 2014) as well as friends' advises were most sought for when youths discuss on the topic of death (Kok, Gan, & Goh, 2011). In addition, adolescents perceiving peers as unkind and unhelpful, being bullied, and engage in frequent physical fighting have higher risks in having suicidal thoughts and attempts (Cui, Cheng, Xu, Chen, & Wang, 2010). …

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