Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Illustrative Material in the Structure of Phraseographic Entries

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Illustrative Material in the Structure of Phraseographic Entries

Article excerpt


The aim of this paper is to account for the important role of illustrative examples as an inherent part of entries of phraseological dictionaries. After designating the function of this element of the entry we suggest the review of its development from the earliest dictionaries to the latest ones. On the basis of existing unilingual phraseological dictionaries of the English and Russian languages we draw the conclusion about the necessity of elaborating appropriate methodology of selecting contexts and their arranging in the entry. Research into illustrative examples structure of four online idiom dictionaries evidences that online phraseography has not worked out its methodology of selecting, preparing and representing illustrative material used in resources of computer and corpora linguistics. We also make emphasis on the fact that phraseography is a part of linguistics.

Keywords: phraseography, phraseological unit, unit of meaning, shade of meaning, dictionary entry, sentential context samples, instantialization

1. Introduction

Phraseography is a comparatively new branch of linguistics, it is based mostly upon the theses elaborated in works contributed into lexicography. On this stage it is worth mentioning that the fact of existence of theory of lexicography and its necessity was not admitted by some even well-known scholars as Wierzbicka (Wierzbicka, 1985), Béjoint and others. The role of linguists in the process of dictionary compilation and their involvement in it are totally rejected; as they think "a majority of dictionaries are not about general language anyway" (Bergenholtz & Bergenholtz, 2011, p. 189). Albeit the viewpoint is supported even by some eminent scholars as Henning Bergenholtz we do not hesitate to express our strong belief that dictionary compilation is the work requiring high level of linguistic competence. The same idea is expressed by many contemporary linguists, among them are M. Rundell (2012), L. Zgusta (1992), Z. Zare and Balakumar (2014).

Our experience of compiling Multilingual (Russian-English-German-Turkish-Tatar Phraseological dictionary) Phraseological dictionary published in 2008 (Arsentieva, 2008) evidences about the necessity of serious linguistic basis for completing each step of the work process: selecting the lemmata, their presentation, defining, giving information about optional components of the head phrases and their lexical and grammatical variants, lexical collocability, grammatical valency, stylistic characteristics, providing synonyms and antonyms, representing sentential context samples, etc. This entire job can be carried out successfully, if there is a reliable systematic approach, which we are sure is being elaborated by theory of lexicography and phraseography.

Phraseography deals with even more complex linguistic unit than a word. Semantic structure of a phraseological unit (PU) is different from that of lexical units by its complexity; therefore its appropriate definition can be achieved only by meticulous forethought of each element of the entry, one of which is sentential context samples (SCS).

Phraseological meaning is a conglomeration of diverse units of sense, as A. N. Leontiev states (Leontiev, 1972, p. 207). It varies in speech according to communicative situation PU is used. The sense of PU is the information which is implied by the speaker when using it (PU) in a definite context, at a definite period of time, under definite circumstances. One should underscore that here emotional evaluative type of information is meant rather than logical-denotational one.

Within the framework of this research we use the formula for defining the sense of a PU, suggested by I.M. Kobozeva: "Sense of X for Y is the information tied with X in the consciousness of Y within the period of time T when Y pronounces X or receives it as a means of information delivering" (Kobozeva, 2007, p. 13).

Subjectively, the sense of a PU is inseparable from its meaning, even is included into it, phraseological meaning and its realization in the form of sense to be united in the conscious of the receptor or speaker into one semantic entity. …

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