Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Problematization of Social-and-Ecological Aspects in Adaptation of the Forced Migrants in Stavropol Krai

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Problematization of Social-and-Ecological Aspects in Adaptation of the Forced Migrants in Stavropol Krai

Article excerpt

Abstract

The article represents the scientific-theoretical analysis of the socio-ecological aspects in adaptation of the forced migrants in Stavropol Krai. The features of ecological and physiological adaptation of migrants taking into account ecologic-physiological, medical-demographic, socio - legal characteristics in particular community development are shown in it. It is denoted the indicators which influence on the migrant flows. Among such indicators there are dynamics of diseases among population, problem of quality and quantity of food, employment, working conditions, common conditions of environment.

Keywords: social ecology, socio-ecological environment of person, ecological migrants, socio-ecological indicators of migration

1. Introduction

A great number of people appears as the forced migrants due to the international conflicts, numerous natural disasters and cataclysms, in many situations - hunger and poverty.

Last decade in scientific community of socio-ecologists more attention is paid to studying questions of the increasing ecologic and social crisis which consequences strengthen the forced migration of population. The scientists see the reasons of this crisis in a number of factors, among which: deterioration of work and life conditions, quality and quantity of food, level decrease of ecological culture among population, stressor, etc. (Gabdrakhmanova, 2003; Dukhina 2014).

These factors making socio-ecological environment of person, undoubtedly, have impact on such indicators as: level of mental and physical health of population, longevity, birth rate, mortality, social and economic behavior and migration (Information and Analysis bulletin, 2013; Soldatova, 2001).

Therefore an important problem is studying complex action of social and natural factors of environment on process of person adaptation in community. This problem has special actuality in a context of adaptation features research of the forced migrants for whom adaptation process is most difficult in the conditions of receiving community, and it is necessary to consider cumulative influence of a number of environmental factors - social, geographical, demographic, ecological, economic, cultural, political, etc. (Efimov, 2006; Ryabtsev, 2006; Olejnikov, 2001; Galich, 2006).

Last decade the concept "ecological migrants" which recognized "as the persons suddenly or unexpectedly forced to run from their houses in a great number because of natural or human-induced disasters" was widely adopted (Gudwin-Gill, 1997). Ecological migration can be caused by natural disasters and accidents, and also technogenic processes.

The authors support V. I. Evtushenko's point of view who distinguishes migration because of ecological and technogenic catastrophes and migrants leaving places of the usual residence because of gradual deterioration of ecological, sanitary and epidemiologic situation, change of climatic conditions, environment, etc. (Evtushenko, 2010).

2. Method

In view of that the migrant adaptation problem is one of the parts of demographic problem. We will consider it taking into account ecological and physiological, medico-demographic and social and legal features of concrete community development.

Ecologo-physiological features include examination of the living environment quality, function dependence from the human conditions of their life and work in different physiographic zones during different periods of a year, days; determine the physiological basis of adaptation to natural conditions.

Medico-demographic features include examination of food quality, sanitary and hygienic conditions of work and life, rate of birth and mortality, psychological and emotional state of environment, genetic factors, distribution of socially significant diseases, etc.

Socio-legal features focus on studying opportunities in doing by the man regulatory requirements and legal norms of the receiving community, and the state of the normative framework that protects rights and interests of individuals in the community, and defining their social and legal status (Gritsenko, 2006). …

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