Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

A Level of Jump Abilities of Elite Slovak Soccer Players at Different Positions in Field

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

A Level of Jump Abilities of Elite Slovak Soccer Players at Different Positions in Field

Article excerpt

Introduction

Modern trends of present professional soccer become evident mainly in dynamics and constant increase in playing speed which is especially presented by limiting jump abilities. We agree with the authors Psotta et al. (2006) who state that the biggest changes in soccer in last years were made especially in condition figures which regard to speed-force assumptions in playing performance. The condition according to Bunc (1999) presents 3040% of playing performance in soccer. According to Reilly (1997), Psotta et al. (2006), Orendurff et al. (2010), soccer is intermittent movement activity which contains very short, usually 1 to 5 seconds continuing intervals of endurance with high to maximum intensity, which alternate with intervals of endurance with lower intensity or inaction lasting from 5 to 10 seconds. Bangsbo, Mohr & Krustrup (2006), Bangsbo, Iaia & Krustrup (2007) state by professional players 150 to 250 short intensive activities in a match. Hipp (2007) declares that in the soccer match we can observe by player around 100 to 150 sprints with different length.

Important fact in connection with meaning of jump abilities is the statement of Psotta et al. (2006) that jump ability develops especially in accelerating sprint phase around 1.85 to 2.00 s when soccer player runs ca. 10 to 12 m. Grasgruber & Cacek (2008) state that the power is the most important factor in accelerating sprint phase too. According to Psotta et al. (2006) 50-65% of all realized sprints are shorter than 5m, 75-85% of all sprints are no longer than 10m and the average length of sprints is 9m in a single soccer game. We can agree with authors that the most important element of running speed of soccer players is starting speed and running acceleration. According to various researches professional soccer players achieve significantly higher speed in first 10 m sprints in comparison with players from lower leagues (Grasgruber & Cacek, 2008, Psotta et al., 2006). Besides Mohr, Krustrup & Bangsbo (2003) found out by elite players about 28 to 58% bigger distance (p < 0.05) in runs at high intensity (> 19km.h-1) and sprints compared to players of lower level (run at high intensity = 2.43±0.14 vs. 1.90±0.12km, sprint = 0.65±0.06 vs. 0.41±0.03km). Haugen et al. (2012) discovered that Norwegian national soccer players and players of the Norwegian Premier league achieved higher performance from the point of view of the acceleration and running speed (p < 0.05) than players from 2nd division (difference 1.0-1.4%), 3rd - 5th division (difference 3.0-3.8%), junior national team (difference 1.7-2.2%) and junior players (difference 2.83.7%). Considering that this research lasted more years (1995-2010, n = 939, age = 22.1±4.3 years), the authors had the possibility to determine that players in years 2006-2010 were faster about 1-2% in 20m run and had achieved rather maximal speed in comparison with players in years 1995-1999 and 2000-2005.

If we take presented facts and variability of game requirements into account, e. g. constant direction changes in running, personal duels, getting up after falls, different types of kicks, passes and many other things. We can state that soccer players use almost always jump abilities. Soccer game is characterized largely with different forms of speed and speed-dynamic abilities and success of a soccer match is depending on and determined by their level. Production and absorption of power reveals in final performance (rational and effective solution of physical activity of the player) but reveals as possible cause of player's injury too (Malý et al., 2011). Jump abilities are limiting factors of the soccer player and their high level is one of the most important preconditions of player's success in realization of playing situations. It comes to many encounters of players of different playing positions in the match. The advantage of high level of jump abilities especially determined in vertical jumps and short sprints can be the decisive moment of successful solution of playing situation in favor of offensive and defensive team. …

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