Academic journal article Central European Journal of Public Health

Spatiotemporal Analysis of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure and Respiratory Infections Cases in Beijing

Academic journal article Central European Journal of Public Health

Spatiotemporal Analysis of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure and Respiratory Infections Cases in Beijing

Article excerpt

SUMMARY

Background: Ambient air pollutants (PM^sub 25^) are components of persistent haze in Beijing during the autumn and winter seasons.

Materials: We collected hourly PM^sub 2.5^ monitoring data for 35 days from 35 sites in Beijing during 2012. We also identified patients developing respiratory infections during the same time period in the same locale. ABME model was used to simulate environmental exposure concentrations over the course of each day. A medical accessibility analysis was performed to exclude the impact of medical availability on the analysis. A spatial analysis was included in the evaluation of the relationship between exposure duration and concentration of PM^sub 2.5^ with the development of acute respiratory disease.

Results: A low concentration of PM^sub 2.5^ (greater than 35 µg/m^sup 3^ and less than 115 µg/m^sup 3^) for at least 3 days was associated with an increased risk of acute respiratory disease. A high concentration of PM^sub 2.5^ (greater than 115 µg/m^sup 3^) was associated with an increased risk of infection even after 1 day of exposure.

Keywords: PM^sub 2.5^, respiratory infection cases, exposure duration and concentration, cumulative effect, spatiotemporal analysis

INTRODUCTION

Ambient air pollutants (PM, 5) are main components of persistent haze in Beijing during the autumn and winter seasons (1). Overexposure to PM,5 poses a risk to public health. Fine particles are more strongly associated than coarse particles with acute respiratoiy health risks (2, 3). Zhang et al. has reported the population exposure to these particles in high-exposure areas of Beijing (4) during the autumn of 2012. Air pollution has been shown to contribute to patient morbidity and mortality (5-8). The risk associated with different duration of exposure and amount of exposure has not been well defined.

Epidemiological evidence suggests that air pollution is a contributing cause of respiratoiy and cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality (9-11). The character of the relationship between exposure duration and concentration of particulate matter with population mortality has been one of the critical and difficult problems in air pollution epidemiologic studies (12). Previous evaluations have usually been based on case studies (13,14). These studies do not include environmental exposure data, and instead present city average environmental concentrations to estimate the exposure of each clinical case. Environmental exposure concentration differences duiing the day and night have not been considered. Du X. et al. (15) evaluated the exposure of adults and children to fine particles using a personal PM, 5 exposure monitor. There was a strong association between fixed-site concentration and personal exposure concentration, suggesting that ambient concentrations have a large role in personal exposure to fine particles.

We collected hourly PM, 5 concentration data from 35 sites in Beijing and acute respiratoiy infection case data from October 8th, 2012 to November 11th, 2012. A spatiotemporal simulation model was used to simulate environmental exposure concentrations duiing the day and night. A spatial and statistical case studies were undertaken to better understand the relationship between exposure duration and concentration of particulate matter with acute respiratoiy disease.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

PM^sub 2.5^ Data

The Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau (BJEPB) established 35 air quality monitoring stations in Beijing in October 2012 through the Centre of the City Environmental Protection Monitoring Website Platform (http://zx.bjmemc.com.cn/). On tins website the PM^sub 2.5^ concentration data measured in µg/m^sup 3^ (microgram per cubic meter) are updated on the hour. The location of monitoring stations for fine particles in the air 2.5 micrometers or less in size (PM^sub 2.5^) has been previously reported (4). We collected PM^sub 2.5^ concentration data for 35 consecutive days (840 hours) from October 8th, 2012 to November 11th, 2012 from these sites. …

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