Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Management Studies

Instrument for Brand Positioning and Sports Celebrity Endorsement in Measuring Purchase Intention of Consumers

Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Management Studies

Instrument for Brand Positioning and Sports Celebrity Endorsement in Measuring Purchase Intention of Consumers

Article excerpt

Celebrity endorsements is one of the applied strategy among many strategies in raising various types of products, services or brands, as it helps corporations to build up brand awareness and gain acceptance by adopting celebrities. Famous celebrities may be instrumental to the people to take notice of what they are endorsing and create an immediate identity or persona for a product (Cooper, 1984). Celebrities increases attention of the consumers towards the brand and also make it more desirable, credible. This results in advertisers trusts and they seeks out celebrities to advertise their brand (Spielman, 1981). Companies desire to differentiate their brand from others by making association of their brand with the brand image of the celebrity (Buck, 1993). Today firms at huge level are hiring the superstars and athlete endorsers for market communication by making huge investments to associate their brands with the endorsers (Erdogan, 1999; Jyothi & Rajkumar, 2005). It is very common for many countries to use celebrities in the form of actors, actresses, entertainers and sports celebrity endorsement for the positioning of the brand (Pompitakpan, 2004). The principal cause for employment of celebrity endorsers is that, the celebrities are seen as dynamic in terms of attractiveness and appealing qualities (Atkin & Block 1983). Celebrity usage in the advertisement is not a new phenomenon (Kaikati, 1987; Venkateshkumar, 2012) but Celebrities have been utilised for branding of the products since the late 19th century (Erdogan, 1999; Hood, 2012). As in year 1883, Lillie Langtry (an English actress) was endorser for brand Pears Soap (Agarwal & Kamakura, 1995). Celebrities endorsers' used in commercials was estimated as one in every six advertisements around 1979 (Howard, 1979). Further indicated by (Lane, 1996) that, in the monetary value of celebrity endorsement it is estimated that US companies paid more than USD 1 billion to sports celebrities. The celebrity endorser is defined as "any individual who enjoys public recognition and who uses this recognition on behalf of a consumer good by appearing with it in an advertisement" (McCracken, 1989). "Celebrities includes actors, models, sports athletes, entertainers, pop stars, and politicians" (McCracken, 1989; Khatri, 2006). A sports celebrity endorser may be determined as "a famous [athlete or coach] who uses public recognition to recommend or co-present with a product in an advert" (Stafford et al., 2003). It also include sports professionals who are retired or decease (Constanzo and Goodnight, 2005). In the backdrop, this paper indicates the new insights to the study of Sports celebrity endorsement as the stimuli to affect brand positioning to the end results of customer purchase behavioural intention.

Celebrity Endorsement

The literature of the celebrity endorsement is very comprehensive and there had been several researchers in the same field, who had used the model of celebrity endorsement and categorised under the generic name source model such as (Hovland & Weiss, 1951; Hovland et al., 1953; Kelman, 1961; Dholakia & Stemthai, 1977; McGuire, 1985; Ohanian, 1990; Ohanian, 1991; Solomon, 1996; Erdogan, 1999) and they explained the practicality of the communication that may be tempted by the experimental degree of source expertise and source trustworthiness in an endorser. Consumers perceive the celebrity endorser as the credible source (trustworthy and expert) on products and therefore there are the possibilities that a lot potential consumers may move around to real consumers (Friedman & Friedman, 1979; Till & Bulser, 1998; Lafferty & Goldsmith, 1999; Goldsmith et al., 2000). Further, the trustworthiness can be achieved by employing the athletes who are strictly connected with the brand (Holloway & Robinson, 1995), but in some cases it happens that the superstars who are endorsing products do not have access to personal usage, it is termed as the 'credibility gap', as the lack of credibility forced by incidences as mentioned above of not using the brand, but undertaking the endorsements (Solomon et al. …

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