Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Management Studies

Application of the Maslow's Hierarchy of Need Theory; Impacts and Implications on Organizational Culture, Human Resource and Employee's Performance

Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Management Studies

Application of the Maslow's Hierarchy of Need Theory; Impacts and Implications on Organizational Culture, Human Resource and Employee's Performance

Article excerpt

Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology anticipated by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation". Maslow consequently extended the idea to include his observations on humans' innate curiosity, over the years researches and authors has tend to criticizes the theory as being irrelevant in most part of the world for is western in nature Contrary to such assertion, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory remains relevant in every sector of our business today as its best analyzes below Maslow's hierarchy of needs where the lower order needs (physiological and safety needs) may be linked to organizational culture. Every new organization passes through this lower order stage in which they struggle with their basic survival needs.

At the third level of the Maslow's hierarchy, social needs would correspond to the formation of organized roles within the organization into distinct units, depicting the human resource management function which resonates according to the tone set by organizational culture. The positive interaction of organizational culture and human resource management would result in self-esteem and self-actualization. This is manifested through the employees' performance which showcases the strength and reliability of their organization in the face of competitors. It also implies that the organization through its employees has excelled and met their objectives, mission and vision statement, i.e. a stage that can be considered parallel to self-actualization.

Organizational culture

Organizational culture has proven to be very elusive because of the lack of a single definition that is generally accepted by all organizational culture literatures. One of the issues involving culture is that it is defined both in terms of its causes and effects (Shili, 2008). Organizational culture is a complex network of values and norms that guides an individual's behaviors. It involves a set of beliefs, values, assumptions and experience that are acquired through learning, socializing and sharing by members of social unit such as people in the organization (Rousseau, 1990) Almost all the definitions of culture emphasizes the organizational assumptions developed, nurtured and mentored consciously or unconsciously over organization's life cycle;, these includes experiences, norms, values, philosophy and rituals that hold the organization together; its portrait, self-image, inner workings, interaction with the outside environment where some of the values are kept in written form while others are unwritten but yet adhered to strictly (Schein, 1984). The culture of an organization is sometimes dynamic in nature, particularly after doing effective strength and weakness analysis, out of which can be eliminated and advantages retained and strengthened (Shumen, 2009). A valid organizational culture is called corporate culture (Shumen, 2009). Schein (1984) argues that we can describe "how" a group constructs its environment and which behaviour patterns are discernible among the way it does its things. It is clear that organizational culture is a process that the organizational founders, top management and employees learn, socialize and adopt over time (Schein, 1984). It selects the best culture that suits the organization's objectives and that can be easily be accepted by wider environment (Robbins & Judge, 2009). Organizational culture is the normative glue that holds an organization together (Tychy, Fombrun, & Devanna, 1982). Support by Schein (1990), in a more comprehensive fashion, argued that culture, as values and behaviors that are believed to lead to success and are thus taught to new members. Forehand and Gilmer (1964) suggest that culture is the set of characteristics that describe an organization and distinguish it from others. Alvesson and Berg (1992) state that, organizational culture is a management tool that helps in work rationalization and efficiency thinking: an attempt to develop control mechanisms that are not based on compulsion or on direction. …

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