Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Management Studies

HR Issues in Higher Education: Key Workplace Challenge for Branding and Internationalization in Education

Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Management Studies

HR Issues in Higher Education: Key Workplace Challenge for Branding and Internationalization in Education

Article excerpt

India's education system has expanded exponentially and there has been a considerable increase in the spread of educational institutions along with enrolment at every stage. However, there is a meager initiative towards internationalization of higher education and scarcity of skilled manpower which is a potential hurdle to economic progress. The General Agreement in Trade and Services (GATS) is leading to the flourishing of foreign education providers that is believed to meet skills target outcomes by providing high quality education (LaRocque, 2003) for students. Moreover, recently after years of delayed legislation, the Indian government have agreed to allow overseas universities to operate as "non-profit companies" under the newly passed Companies Act, as announced by human resource development (HRD) ministry. This will allow foreign universities to set up campuses and offer degrees without having local partners. It is thus imperative to understand the link between education and trade and the impact of the education trade on education practices and policies.

GATS was one of the agreements that were signed under the purview of the World Trade Organization (WTO) which came into existence in 1995. The central idea of GATS is that progressive liberalization of trade in commercial services will promote economic growth in the WTO member countries. Under the framework developed through GATS, member countries are expected to put forward their specific proposals, engage in negotiations, and make their own commitments for the progressive liberalization of trade in commercial services ranging from entertainment, e-commerce, and education.The GATS also defines education services by the wayin which the education service is provided, or the mode of supply. Education modes of supplyinclude consumption abroad (mode 1 ), in which the provision of the service involves themovement of the consumer to the country of the supplier; cross border supply(mode 2)which includes the provision of a service where it does not require the physical movement ofthe consumers; commercial presence(mode 3) in which the service provider establishes orhas a presence, that is a commercial facility, in another country; and the presence of naturalpersons (mode 4) which includes travel by persons to another country on a temporary basisto provide services (WTO, 2005).The provisions of GATS have removed trade barriers and thus education is commoditized.

Recently approved Foreign University Bill by Indian Government in Sept, 2013 under Companies Act, is step towardsforeign direct investment in education sector and is believed to provide quality education for Indian students (those who can afford it) and access to a huge number of students (for foreign universities).Under the proposed rules, foreign universities can set up campuses in India once they have been notified as 'foreign education provider' by UGC. Several foreign universities had been looking forward to enter India to tap its higher educational market.

In India State Governments are responsible for establishment of State Universities and colleges and provide plan grants for their development and non-plan grants for their maintenance.The Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) is created for coordination and cooperation between the Union and the States. Special Constitutional responsibility of the Central Government: the Constitution gives exclusive Legislative Power to the Central Govt, for co-ordination and determination of standards in Institutions of higher education or research and scientific and technical institutions. Therefore, keeping in view GATS regulations, internationalization /globalization in higher education and newly proposed foreign providers bill it is essential for Central and State governments to formulate domestic rules/policies and Universities and affiliated colleges to work upon business practices to face the key challenges and competitions in higher education and curb exploitations. …

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