Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Management Studies

Impediment in Access to Education Due to Feudal System: An Anthropological Study of Marri Tribe in Balochistan

Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Management Studies

Impediment in Access to Education Due to Feudal System: An Anthropological Study of Marri Tribe in Balochistan

Article excerpt

Pakistan society consists of landlords with large joint families possessing hundreds or even thousands of acres of lands. They seldom make any direct contribution to agricultural production. Instead, all work is done by peasants or tenants who live at subsistence level. The Sardar or landlord, by virtue of his control of such vast area of land and human resources, is powerful enough to influence the distribution of water, fertilizers, tractor permits, agricultural credit and consequently exercises considerable influence over the revenue, police and judicial administration of the area. The Sardar (landlord, feudal) is thus lord and master. Khokhar (2006) says that Pakistan inherited the area along with all its peculiarities after the independence in 1947. Attempts were made by the federal government to bring the tribal people in the mainstream, but they could not imbibe fully as equal citizens.

It is conformed that education is the most important institution in any society. In the world, the societies, those containing best education systems are considered progressive. Every society has its own patterns and models for their institutions. In every society, educational institution is always linked with the broad social structure of the society. Pakistan is a multi-cultural statewith a blend of different ethnic groups. There are very strong and deep rooted systems and social structures, such as feudal or Sardari System. In our tribal societies, education is not considered an important element. Problems related to female education are most prominent (Tahira Aftab, 1994). In all these Pakistani feudal societies the functions of any institute are different with respect to other societies. It is also assumed that feudal or Sardari System is one of the biggest hurdles in the way of progress. Talking about education the ideas vary from society to society. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. It is the development of all those capabilities in the individual, which will enable him to control his environment (Khalid, 1975). Similarly, Education is the aggregate of all the processes by which a person develops abilities, attitude and many other forms of behavior of positive values in the society in which he lives (Farooq, 1993).

Balochistan is the most backward province of Pakistan. Sixty years after independence, there has been no significant socioeconomic change in the province. Since the Sardars and feudal were not open to education and development, most of the area remained remote, underdeveloped and rustic amongst all provinces of Pakistan. In Balochistan the tribal and feudal systems are very deep-rooted. In all traditional societies, functions of institutions are always controlled by these feudal leaders. Inverse relationship between Sardari System and education is one of the major hurdles in the way of education (Chowdhory & Kowsar, 1996).

Our social barriers, economic condition and political hurdles do not promote education particularly in rural areas. People are poor. They cannot afford the educational expenses of their children's and then there are a lot number of social and cultural barriers. Political leaders, Sardars and power full people of the rural areas try to create impediments in access to education as they are in the view that if poor people will get education in the future they will compete them and their children in every way of life ( Jatoi, 1987).

Method

Different qualitative anthropological techniques were used for data collection. Participant observation, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were used to collect empirical evidence. The researchers also tried to follow the concept of triangulation theory in order to verify the concepts. Three focus group discussions (FGD's) with local people of different strata wereconductedfollowingfull protocols of FGDs. Twenty in depth interview were conducted during the research. …

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