Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Management Studies

A Study of Inter-District Disparities in Health Infrastructure in Haryana, India

Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Management Studies

A Study of Inter-District Disparities in Health Infrastructure in Haryana, India

Article excerpt

(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)

It hardly needs any justification that health infrastructure is an important factor for the development of human resources. In such era, health sector in Haryana is facing various problems including inter-district disparities in the availability of health infrastructure in terms of hospitals, health centres, beds in medical institutions, doctors, nurses et cetera. Health infrastructure refers to the resources needed to provide essential health services and have positive impact on the health of masses. Worldwide, health is considered as a right of every citizen and is defined as a state of complete physical, mental, social and spiritual well being and not merely an absence of disease (Rao, 2004). Health outcomes like life expectancy, crude birth and death rates, infant mortality rate, eradication of dangerous diseases like malaria, leprosy, small pox, polio, tuberculosis and so forth are greatly influenced by the availability of health infrastructure (Subba Lakshmi & Sahoo, 2013). Therefore, it is the duty of the State to develop adequate health infrastructure in its territory. Accordingly, Haryana one of the most progressive States of India, has also developed vast health infrastructure since its inception as a separate State in 1966.

Health infrastructure in Haryana: An overview

Haryana is geographically a small State but its contribution in National GDP (at 2004-05 prices) has been recorded as 3.4 per cent (Economic Survey of Haryana, 2013-14). From the point of view of health infrastructure, Haryana is also performing well. According to latest Statistical Abstract of Haryana (2012-13), the number of medical institutions in Haryana has increased to 3244 including 431 primary health centers (PHCs), 86 community health centers (CHCs), 2465 sub-centers (SCs), 69 hospitals, and 193 dispensaries in 2011-12 from 785 (89 PHCs, 510 SCs, 61 hospitals and 125 dispensaries) in 1968. The total medical staff was only 3312 out of which doctors and nurses were 464 and 751 respectively in 1966 but in 2011-12 this number has reached to 13185 with 1593 doctors and 4078 nurses. There were only 8 medical institutions behind one lakh of population in 1968 but in 2011 -12, their number has increased to 13. Besides, there were 122 Ayurvedic and 21 Unani institutions having 286 medical personnel in 1966-67 but up to 2012-13 State has 496 Ayurvedic, 20 Unani and 22 Homoeopathic institutions staffed with 878 persons. Similarly the per capita expenditure on health in the State is increased from 1.92inl966-67to 734in2013-14 (Goel and Geetika, 2014). But, at the same time, it is also found that Haryana spends 2 per cent of the total budgetary allocation and 0.7 per cent of the gross domestic product to the health sector (Gera, 2014). Moreover, data given in Booklet on Haryana Economy (2014) depicts that due to the expansion of health facilities, the health status of people in Haryana has improved since 1966. The life expectancy of male and female has increased to 65.50 and 70.00 years respectively in 2011. Birth rate (number of births per 1,000 people in a year) and death rate (number of deaths per 1,000 people in a year) have improved and stood at 21.6 and 6.4 per thousand respectively in 2012 as against 33.34 and 9.21 respectively in 1966. Similarly, infant mortality rate (number of infants die before reaching the age of one year per one thousand lives in the same year) is also reduced to 42.0 per thousand in 2012.

Despite such progress the regional variations in health infrastructure is still a grave cause of concern in State of Haryana. Among twenty one districts some are rich in health facilities while others are lagging behind. For example, in district Mewat, health institutions are in very bad situation. There is lack of doctors in Government hospitals of Mewat and only one doctor appointed instead of two in each of the PHCs in the district. Moreover, district has only one woman doctor (Dev, 2013). …

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