Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Effect of Female Education and Labor Force Ratio on Economic Development

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Effect of Female Education and Labor Force Ratio on Economic Development

Article excerpt

(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)

One of the most significant problems in developing countries is the level of education. Rapid population growth in such countries has declined the schooling rate and quality of education, besides leading to shortages in qualified labor.

Rapid population growth has also led to the problem of integrating a qualified female population into the production process of these countries. Unlike developed countries, women in less developed countries are constrained by the notions surrounding the concept of a traditional family. Hence, despite being educated, women face barriers to entering the labor force and participating in the production process.

This study seeks the "woman" factor in human development and investigates if this factor has any impact on economic development. Hence, only countries with complete records for the period under study are included. The data are subject to panel regression and factor analyses. After interpreting the panel regression model defined by such variables as the education ratios of girl students, female labor force ratio, and number of seats held by women in parliament, we factorize the multiple variables through dimension reduction and factor analyses. They reveal the factor scores as well as the rankings and groupings of countries. In addition, we study country rankings emerging from both analyses and from changes in the countries examined over the period under consideration. However, first, we will briefly examine the concept of development.

Economic Development

Economic development refers to improvements in cultural and political spheres besides growth of the economy. It can also be defined as the enhancement of welfare. In other words, the term development embraces improvements in socio-cultural spheres and in freedoms along with improvement in statistical indicators. For example, while the growth of a child may refer to his learning, his ability to read and write, his transitioning into adolescence, and to physical changes such as the growth of facial hair, it is his intelligence and contribution to his environment that is referred to as his development.

Although a concept of development that encompasses all countries is impossible, certain core factors can be isolated to illustrate the meaning of development (Case, Fair, & Oster 2012, p. 715).

Some of the resources of economic development are capital accumulation, human resources, entrepreneurship, social capital, education, and the female labor force. In this study, we will consider only education and the female labor force.

Education: One of the most crucial factors in economic development is education. Education is the process of effecting a desired change in the behaviors of an individual through personal experience. Developing countries use educational policies in developmental strategies (Seyidoglu, 1993, p. 27). There is a strong correlation between development and education. Thus, countries that value the education of girls will rank higher in terms of development.

Female Labor Force: Women are a significant factor in the dynamics and regulation of societies. Besides their role in shaping social life, women also play an important role in driving the development and advancement of countries. Worldwide, statistics show that there is a positive correlation between the value placed on women and the development of countries. Development is seen in those countries where women are appreciated and are active participants in the economic, social, and political spheres. In contrast, one sees poverty and misery in countries that do not view women favorably.

The contribution of women to the labor force dates back to the Industrial Revolution (1760-1840). As the demand for workers increased and as the male labor force fell short of demand, the need for women workers increased. An increase in the education of women and their participation in the labor force ensured rapid development of countries. …

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