Academic journal article North Korean Review

Chronologies

Academic journal article North Korean Review

Chronologies

Article excerpt

Timeline I: The Turbulent History of the Korean Peninsula

2333 B.C: According to Korean legend, the kingdom of Choson is founded at the site of present day Pyongyang.

A.D. 300s: Three kingdoms emerge on the Korean Peninsula; Buddhism and Confucianism are introduced from China.

688: The kingdom of Shilla defeats the other kingdoms, beginning a thirteenhundred-year period in which Korea is a unified nation.

935-1392: The Koryo dynasty rules Korea. Buddhism declines in influence.

1200s: Mongolians invade Korea; they are expelled by the mid-fourteenth century.

1392-1910: The Yi dynasty rules Korea. Confucianism replaces Buddhism as the states official ideology.

1592: Japan attacks Korea and is defeated.

1600s: Christian missionaries enter Korea; in response, Korean rulers begin a policy of excluding all foreigners.

1630s: Manchu armies from China Invade Korea and force it to pledge loyalty to China; members of the Yi family continue as kings of Korea while paying tribute to China.

1700s: Korea becomes known as the Hermit Kingdom, maintaining little contact with any country outside of China and Japan.

1876: Japan forces Korea to open some ports of trade.

1880s: Korea signs commercial treaties with Russia, the United States, and some European nations.

1894-1905: Japan's military victories over China and Russia give it greater influence in Korea.

1910-1945: Japan annexes Korea and rules it as a colony.

1945: Japan surrenders to the Allies. Following an American proposal, Japanese forces north of the 38th parallel surrender to the Soviet Union; south of it, they surrender to the Americans.

December 1945: Foreign ministers from the allied powers meet in Moscow and propose a five-year trusteeship for Korea.

September 1947: The United Nations votes to sponsor general elections in Korea to determine its future government.

August 15, 1948: UN-sponsored elections are held in the South, resulting in the election of Syngman Rhee as president of the Republic of Korea (ROK); the Soviet Union and North Korea refuse to participate. The ROK's capital is Seoul.

September 9, 1948: Kim Il Sung, backed by the Soviet Union, establishes the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK) in the North, with Pyongyang as its capital. Both the DPRK and the ROK claim to be the only legitimate government for all of Korea.

1948-1950: Ongoing border clashes disturb the peace at the 38th parallel.

June 1949: The U.S. withdraws its occupying forces in South Korea, leaving behind five hundred military advisers.

October 1949: Mao Zedong completes his communist revolution in China, leading to an American debate over "who lost China" and concerns over the spread of communism in Asia.

January 12, 1950: Secretary of State Dean Acheson states that South Korea is outside America's primary security sphere in Asia.

Timeline II: Tensions on the Korean Peninsula

June 25, 1950: North Korean troops invade South Korea. President Harry S Truman orders U.S. air, naval, and ground forces to help defend South Korea. At America's urging, the United Nations pass a resolution demanding that the Communists retreat to the 38th parallel and later ask member nations to aid South Korea.

June-September 1950: North Korean forces occupy most of South Korea and pin down South Korea and American troops in Pusan.

September-October 1950: Allied troops under General Douglas Macarthur successfully land in Inchon, retake South Korea, including Seoul, and push into North Korea. They capture Pyongyang on October 19 and press on toward the Chinese border.

November 1950-January 195i: China intervenes in the war, sending hundreds of thousands of troops into North Korea. They retake Pyongyang and press south of the 38th parallel, recapturing Seoul.

March 14, 195i: Allied troops rally to retake Seoul.

July 195i-July 1953: Truce talks founder on the issue of prisoner repatriation. …

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