Academic journal article Review of European Studies

Neuropsychological Approach to the Study of Special Aspects of Development of Preschool Children with Psychoverbal Pathology

Academic journal article Review of European Studies

Neuropsychological Approach to the Study of Special Aspects of Development of Preschool Children with Psychoverbal Pathology

Article excerpt

Abstract

The article is devoted to the analysis of age dynamics in the formation of regulatory functions and speech in preschool age on the ground of the results of neuropsychological examination of children aged 5-7 years with conditional-normative and deviant development and being raised in polylingual and monolingual environment. Common and special characteristics of age dynamics in programming and control functions are highlighted. These characteristics are due to delay in development of certain brain structures and higher mental functions, as well as social environment factors, especially the specificity of language environment. The necessity of targeted psychological-pedagogical treatment in the terms of regulatory function formation in preschoolers is argued, with taking into account the specificity of psychopathological and environmental factors.

Keywords: neuropsychological diagnostics, polylingual and monolingual environment, programming and control, psychoverbal pathology, speech development, voluntary regulation

1. Introduction

Completed formation of psychic functions according to the child's age is one of the key factors of successful education. Steadily growing number of children with learning difficulties has determinedmuch wider application of the neuropsychological approach during the development of remedial-developmental treatment methods (Akhutina & Pylaeva, 2008). When studying children with psychoverbal pathology, the most of researchers highlight the importance of preventive treatments allowing to prevent social disadaptation and reduce the severity of developmental deviations. The necessity to implement the developmental treatment as early as possible in its turn determines the importance of well-timed syndrome diagnosis but at the present time there are very few studies based on the neuropsychological approach and focused on preschool age.

This is a rarity though not a singularity when a study covers the specificities of psychoverbal pathology development at the level of interaction between brain systems and functions of a child being raised in a polylingual environment. In this regard, a particular importance for understanding the mechanism of psychic processes is given to comparative neuropsychological examination data analysis method, which assumes a comparison of the examination results collected from children of various age groups and being raised both in polylingual and monolingual environment.

Describing the culturological issues of neuropsychological diagnostics, the researchers, on the one hand, highlight the illegality of applying standard normals to different ethnic groups but on the other hand they note the shortcomings of applying ethnically specifical normals (Pedraza & Mungas, 2008). At the same time, the experimental tests proved that cultural specificities influence on lateralization of verbal functions and on spatial disabilities (Ardila, 1995) and may also result in defects of various functional systems (Golden & Thomas, 2000). In paediatric population there are ethnic differences noted in attentiveness and behavior control tests (Byrd et al., 2008).

As part of this study supported by Russian Foundation for Humanities (project No. 14-16-12004), a comparative analysis of examination results of preschool children (5-7 years old) of different nosological categories, who are raised in polylingual and monolingual environment.

Considering the neuropsychological symptomatology of learning difficulties, the researchers highlight problems conditioned by insufficiency of programming and control (Pylaeva, 1998). The hypothesis of our study is a supposition that the specificities of speech and voluntary regulation formation in preschool age can be determined by delay in development of certain brain structures and higher psychic functions, as well as social environmental factors, in particular the specifity of language environment. At that, the correlation of the specified factors depends on the age. …

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