Academic journal article Review of European Studies

Civilizational and Cultural Approaches to the Constructing of the Education Content in Kazakhstan

Academic journal article Review of European Studies

Civilizational and Cultural Approaches to the Constructing of the Education Content in Kazakhstan

Article excerpt

Abstract

In this article extremely understudied problem-the development of educational content is considered. Studying of this problem at the present stage, according to the authors, creates conditions for the development and realization of basic methodological guidelines, provides the scientific worldview, allows to trace the genesis of pedagogical positions, pedagogical theories. Combining the two approaches in a single article the authors attempted to determine that the civilizational and cultural approaches have common characteristics. Civilization is a general evaluation of the social culture of life that allows you to "quite organically carry civilizational approach to the field of the world educational process, in the center of which man stands, who is educated and teaches, who develops culture created by previous generations, and transforming himself and the culture in the course of this development". Civilizational and cultural approaches provide a fundamental rethinking of the role and importance of the education system of Kazakhstan.

Opinions of different authors of different historical are reviewed and compared. Such terms as "world civilizations", "civilization", and "culture" are disclosed. Each term has a special meaning, character, manifested in different aspects science. Also the essential characteristic of the basic concepts and positions of pedagogy are considered.

Keywords: civilizational approach, cultural approach, educational content, local civilization, phasic civilization, world civilization

1. Introduction

Independence of any science including the history of education and pedagogy is defined by special subject of research and by methodology, what serves as a reliable tool to ensure science's continuous, ascending genesis. We share the view of G. M. Hrapchenkov and V. G. Hrapchenkov that "the problems of methodology in conducting educational, historical and educational researches are the key components of learning of phenomena upbringing and education"; that methodological amateurism leads to a distortion and falsification of objective reality (Hrapchenkov & Hrapchenkov, 1998). Methodology is a theory of scientific and cognitive activity aimed at research and development of methods of scientific knowledge. It is the part of epistemology, the general theory of knowledge, which serves as the teaching methods of the theory of knowledge or research methods (Taubayeva, 2007). Currently actively civilizational approach to the study of the genesis of the educational process is developed. One of its supporters, G. B. Kornetov believes that civilizational approach may become an integral factor in the synthesis of various sciences, it allows to analyze pedagogical phenomenon from different epochs in comparative terms. In his opinion, the hypothesis of a civilizational approach "has considerable heuristic potential" (Kornetov, 1994). A. Toynbee, E. Mayers considered civilization as a socio-cultural organism, and education as one of its sides. The role of education in the history of civilization was considered as significant.

The subject of the civilizational approach is "the set of all norms of human life in their historical development and continuity" or "as something that can be called civilization in its local or broader sense-until to human-general expression" (Pozdnyakov, 1990).

Civilizational approach is an alternative to the previously prevailed in the historical and pedagogical research formational approach. It treats each formation as a stage in the development of civilization, trying to explore the pedagogical phenomena on the background of socio-economic and socio-political dynamics of society, overcomes the limitations (Osadchaya, 1991).

What about cultural approach. Firstly researcher should define the word "culture". Culture has been defined as "The system of values, beliefs, and ways of knowing that guide communities of people in their daily lives" (Trumbull, 2005). …

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