Academic journal article Review of European Studies

Role of France in Solution of the "Eastern Questions" and Its Influence on Ottoman-French Relations (XVIII-XIX)

Academic journal article Review of European Studies

Role of France in Solution of the "Eastern Questions" and Its Influence on Ottoman-French Relations (XVIII-XIX)

Article excerpt

Abstract

In the period of XVIII-XIX centuries, in the course of solving the "Eastern questions", France, as well as the other European imperialist countries, had particularly political principles, and interfered in the internal affairs of political and economic weakened Ottoman Empire. In the nineteenth century, in the division of the territory of the Ottoman Empire between the other European empires to address the "Eastern questions", France also had its own political plans. This article discusses the role of France in solving "Eastern questions", which became the core of the major political problems in international relations and its influence on Ottoman-French political relations. The main scientific objective of this paper is to study the political relations between the Ottoman Empire and France during the emergence of political factors in order to solve the political problems in the framework of the "Eastern questions" in the period of XVIII-XIX centuries.

Keywords: the Ottoman Empire, Eastern questions, Asia, Near East, France, European countries, geopolitics, diplomacy

1. Introduction

In the 90s of the eighteenth century, in Europe, was the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte, who carried out several acts of aggression in Europe. Over time, the major political achievement of Napoleon Bonaparte was the conquest of Venice in the Northern Italy in 1797, on the border with the Ottoman Empire. Continuing his aggressive gestures to the East, Napoleon threatened to the territories of the Ottoman Empire, such as an Eastern Europe and the Balkan Peninsula. Napoleon Bonaparte started to wake up the idea of independence in the minds of the peoples of the Balkan provinces of the Ottoman Empire. On the basis of which he strengthened the desire for independence of the Balkan people from the Ottoman Empire. Napoleon laid the groundwork for strengthening of especially Greeks and Serbs in the Balkans. Such actions in the Balkans increased the "Eastern questions", which was taking place during the same period in international politics (Fremont-Barnes, 2010). At the same time, one of the most important steps of Napoleon in aggravation of the "Eastern questions" was his acts of aggression, organized against to the Egyptian provinces of the Ottoman Empire. In order to implement the military and political plans, Napoleon Bonaparte organized expansionary activities in the Egyptian provinces of the Ottoman Empire in 1798. To protest against of such actions of Napoleon to the Egypt, the Ottoman Porte (the Ottoman government-author) appropriated an action taken against him and attempted to stabilize the political situation in Egypt (Roberts, 2014).

2. The Political Influence of France under Napoleon Bonaparte to the Ottoman Empire and Increasing of the "Eastern Questions"

After the Great French Revolution, spreading the message of independence in the Ottoman Empire's Balkan provinces of France organized by Napoleon and Napoleon's aggressive actions to Egypt drew the attention of the other European empires to the East. Representatives of a coalition against Napoleon Bonaparte's expansionary in Europe, particularly Russia and the United Kingdom shot troopers in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. Napoleon was forced to retreat back had noticed it. At the same time, the expansion of Napoleon Bonaparte to Egypt broke relations of friendship that has lasted for centuries. Also the most important was his contribution to the increasing of the "Eastern questions", which had become a topic in international relationship. It is important to mention the fact that the United Kingdom was one of the empires against France, the United Kingdom feared of France's possession of Egypt, the Eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea areas, and did not want to move that regions to France (Anderson, 1982). The Ottoman-English Agreement was signed in order to restrict the actions of France in Egypt. France in turn began working on an agreement with allies as soon as had known about it (Beydilli, 1999). …

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