Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

Settlement System of the Kazan County in the Middle of the XIX Century

Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

Settlement System of the Kazan County in the Middle of the XIX Century

Article excerpt

Abstract

The urgency of the problem under investigation is caused by the fact that the system of the settlement is the basis and the indicator showing the change in the spatial characteristics, as well as a measure and the reflector of the nature of social and economic processes in a particular area, in this case - Kazan County. The purpose of the article is to familiarize with the first attempts to implement spatial and statistical analysis of data on rural settlement in the middle of the XIX century using the methods of modern computer technology. Leading techniques to the study of this problem are the methods of spatial and spatial-statistical analysis of the data. To visualize the settlement structure of the Kazan district an electronic cartographic base was used, established on the basis of the map of 1910. The localization of the settlements accounted by the Ministry of Internal Affairs in 1859, and a spatial analysis of the current settlement system revealed the areas of the greatest concentration of the settlements, relatively uniform distribution of settlements on the existing three county units of the County and uneven distribution of different their types, socio-ethnic and religious heterogeneity of the population, the direction of the main vector of economic and economic development, the beginnings of the industrial production in the county. Study materials are the most time-consuming and defining step in the creation of the historical geographic information system (GIS).

Keywords: historical GIS, settlement structure, settlement, localization of villages, settlement system, Kazan County

1. Introduction

1.1 The Urgency of the Problem

The study of the society, socio-economic processes, the historical experience of the interaction of various historical social structures - the interaction of cities and villages, multi-religious and multi-ethnic population - make it necessary to study the spatial organization of the existing settlements in the Middle Volga region, which has become largely the result of colonization and economic development of the region. Settlement system reflects the spatial and demographic changes that took place as a result of new capitalist relations penetration into the village, reveals the changing forms of organization of the network of settlements, their status in the existing system, identify likely changes in the existing residential structure and prospects of development of human settlements and social strata. Reconstruction of historical settlement system may be helpful in developing reasoned proposals for the organization of social and economic functioning and social policy in the society at the micro-level of a particular area and at the present stage of development.

1.2 The Need of the Problem

The planned establishment of geographic information system (GIS) spatial organization of settlements in the Middle Volga region in the second half of the XVI-XIX centuries. involves compiling electronic cartographic base, database and GIS applications. Working on the cartographic base involves geographic connection of settlements with the frequency with which they have been recorded and described. Each of the sections of information on settlements reflects the uniqueness of the settlement structure and helps to reveal her identity, and together these sections help define the dynamics and trends in its development. Consequently, the reference to the issue of the settlement system in the Kazan district in the middle of the XIX century seems to be a necessary link in the realization of the aim.

1.3 Features of the Kazan County

The Kazan County, associated with the entry of the former Khanate of Kazan in the Russian state in the second half of the XVI century, was a central part of the political body which lost its independence. It was decisive and significant for the study of the tolerant interaction of interfaith and multiethnic population.

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