Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

Employment of Geoinformation Technologies in Historical Researches Experience of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University

Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

Employment of Geoinformation Technologies in Historical Researches Experience of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University

Article excerpt

Abstract

Relevance of the topic is due to the prevailing in modern science trend - complex study of society, not only in time but also in space, established thanks to the convergence and integration of Arts and Sciences. The paper aims to describe our own experience of association within the framework of a single information field of full-text data sources, mainly registration, accounting and statistics data (cadastres, scribe and census books) and maps to represent in terms of spatial coordinates the social stratification of the city Sviyazhsk and its surroundings in the XVII century. The leading method in the research of this problem is that of geo-information technologies. The main results of this work were the establishment of historical sources database of the period under study, data formalization of the written sources, compiling the geographic basis of geo-information system (GIS), digitization and creation of vectorized base of geo-data (BGD), which allows to localize and identify the settlement of Sviyazhsk County. The paper materials will be useful for further research and for model development of a settlement structure, farm tenure and land use, social stratification of the population and multifaceted relationships of towns and villages (peasantry) in the Middle Volga area in the second half of the XVII century.

Keywords: Modern information technologies, computer technologies, geo-information system, social stratification, Sviyazhsk District (County), Central Volga area, cartographic materials, cadastres

1. Introduction

1.1 Relevance of the Problem

Possibilities of interdisciplinary researches, multifunctionality of GIS attract the increasing number of historians. Researches, connected with the spatial analysis (in Russia, as well as abroad) are conducted in two directions: 1) theoretical, in the frames of which the GIS use bases are specified and adjusted in the history research (Owens, 2008; Gregory & Cooper, 2009; Igonin, 2011; Knowles, 2013) and 2) practical, when authors describe their own experience and specific cases of GIS application, problems they faced during research, and the way of their solution (Raymond, 2011; Boeckel & Otterstrom, 2009; Arakawa & Nicholson, 2010; Rygalova & Chibisov, 2012). In 1960s large data files were processed by means of the electronic computer machine and at the boundary of 1980 and 1990 successful attempts "to refer" data of demographic character to the area were made in the USA and Canada. Establishment of the international Association "History & Computing" in 1986 stipulated an increase in the historical researches done with application of the information technologies (IT). So far in Western Europe, North America and Australia large-scale complexes of cartographical historical data and GIS on history of certain continents, countries and regions are created. The Russian branch of the given organization "History & Computing" Association was established in 1992, and in many respects defines the main directions of application of IT for the Russian scientists. In recent years the "GIS and Their Use in Historical Researches" becomes one of the main directions. So far a number of researches with the use of GIS have been conducted in national science (Bryukhanova, 2012; Kanishchev, 2012; Khayrutdinov, 2014; Kovaleva, et al, 2015; Shaidullina et al, 2015; Gafiyatullina, et al, 2015). Barnaul, Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod and others became the recognized centers of application of modern computer technologies in humanitarian researches.

1.2 Support of Interdisciplinary Projects

GIS perspective application is realized by the administrative structures supervising scientific researches and supporting the projects connected with the GIS problematics by means of various funds (Russian State Scientific Fund, Russian Federal Property Fund, Intas, etc.). Thus, in 2012 within the federal grant program "Scientific and Educational Research Specialists of Innovative Russia" for 2009-2013 the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation supported the "Stratification Interaction of the City and Village in the Transcultural Region in the second half of the XVI-XVIII centuries" project conducted by group of researchers of the Kazan federal university (KFU). …

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