Academic journal article Psychology in Russia

The Relationships between the Achievement Motivations and Temperaments of Psychology Students with Different Lateral Organization Profiles

Academic journal article Psychology in Russia

The Relationships between the Achievement Motivations and Temperaments of Psychology Students with Different Lateral Organization Profiles

Article excerpt

Introduction

Motivation is often a determinant that defines efficiency. Time spent as a student is a period of intense development of the motivational sphere and professional skills. The effectiveness of the educational process in higher education is directly related to the level of motivation of the students toward the training in their chosen profession. Achievement motivation occupies an important place in the structure of the motivational sphere of the future expert. We have previously used the twin method to show that achievement motivation is closely related to general, verbal and non- verbal intelligence and the subject of both environmental and hereditary influences (Vorobyeva & Popova, 2009). There are electroencephalographic features that are associated with the manifestations of the motivation to avoid failure and the desire to succeed (Ermakov et al., 2011, Vorobyeva et al., 2012). Studies of achievement motivation have made it possible to estimate the real socio-environmental opportunities for its formation and development. Further work in this regard will involve research assessing the relationships between achievement motivation and the peculiarities of individual profile asymmetries and temperament traits.

Individual profile asymmetry is manifested as a set of motor, sensory, and cognitive asymmetries that are specific to an individual. The reasons for the differences in individual profiles of asymmetry are actively being investigated, and it has been shown that the greatest contribution to the differences in manual asymmetry include the contributing factors of the shared environment Furthermore, the contribution of genetic factors increases with increases in respondent age (Vuoksimaa et al., 2009; Medland et al., 2009; Teixeira, 2008). Among the reasons for the lateralization of motor functions, hereditary (i.e., genetic causes) and cultural-environmental (i.e., belonging to a certain population) causes stand out (Sommer et al., 2008). The latter influences are well known and are manifested at different frequencies in different types of lateral organization profiles of sensorimotor functions in different populations. In this regard, we performed a study that assessed the contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the manifestation of individual profiles of asymmetry in a South-Russian sample (Ermakov et al., 2010; Vorobyeva, 2012).

Features of temperament and the individual-typological features underlying them can be considered to be important foundations of individual differences that provide individual generations with individual styles of both professional and educational activity (Ilyin, 2001). V.M. Rusalov et al. identified the physiological characteristics of students with who had chosen different professions and found that the most important indicator of temperament was endurance (Rusalov, Rusa- lova & Strelnikova, 2004). In recent years, cross-cultural studies have shown the effectiveness of the model of temperament that underlies the Structure of Tem-perament Questionnaire STQ-77E in the forecasting of success based on various types of mental activity (i.e., intellectual, social, verbal, and "mixed") (Rusalov & Trofimova, 2011).

Applied methods of behavioral genetics have revealed significant genetic conditioning and inter-individual differences in the characteristics of temperament. Thus, J.O. Novgorodova assessed the contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the variability of the features of temperament in primary school children. To assess temperament, this author used the parent version of the questionnaire that was also used by Rothbart. The sample consisted of 85 pairs of twins aged 7 to 10 years of which 49 pairs of twins were monozygotic and 36 pairs were same- sex dizygotic twins. The highest estimates of the contributions of genotype were obtained for indicators that included fear, braking control, shyness and depressed mood (Novgorodova et al. …

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