Academic journal article Review of Artistic Education

The Textbook of Musical Education at School Debut

Academic journal article Review of Artistic Education

The Textbook of Musical Education at School Debut

Article excerpt

The textbook is a reality of the contemporary school, without which it is difficult and even impossible to realize the educational process. Textbooks have been elaborated for centuries, until J.A. Comenius put the theoretical grounds of the need to follow certain principles in choosing the content of a school textbook. Till present, the textbook has a priority role in the educational process in spite of the prognoses to replace it with modem technologies.

To delineate the characteristics of a textbook, we start the survey from the variety of definitions given to this concept. The textbook is a book covering the main notions of a science; a book for school (DEX); book (used in schools) where they present and explain the fundamental notions of a scientific, artistic or technical subject (DEI). The Dictionaml de pédagogie (Dictionary of Pedagogy) defines the textbook as "official document of educational policy, which insures the materialization of the curriculum in a form that refers to the presentation of knowledge and skills at systemic level, through different didactic, operationalized units, and, especially, from the pupil's perspective: chapters, subchapters, themes, subthemes, learning sequences, etc." [3, p. 242].

According to Constantin Cucos, "the textbook is a published book, an object, which presents the following coordinates which, in given circumstances, have reverberations and consequences of pedagogical character:

a) Has a certain exterior aspect (either with a paperboard cover or not, the sheaves are interchangeable, includes a guidebook and workbook, etc.);

b) It is presented in a certain format (it is an easy-to-handle object, has bigger or smaller dimensions - to remember that the physical size of the textbook tells the pupil a certain representation about its importance);

c) It is edited with characters in different sizes and styles, and the text is displayed in the page in such a way that it orientates and facilitates the reading;

d) Includes a qualitative iconographie material, with illustrations optimally included in text, and of authentic aesthetic quality, without colour exaggerations;

e) It is made of qualitative paper, which does not crease, grind, or wipe and which makes a maximal contrast with the elements inserted on the paper"[4, p.247].

The textbook represents an official document of educational policy and insures the disciplinary curriculum to be more concrete. It also still remains a source of knowledge for the pupils, informative-methodological support for the teachers, which offers capitalized learning experiences in the context of promoting the educational relations teacher - pupil, parent - pupil, pupil - pupil. For the parents, the textbook is the "standard" of the realization level of the pupil's leaning performance [5, p.59]. The priority of a textbook is the educational message and the realization of the link between generations. In this respect, its continuous improvement has been one of the major objectives of the school. The process of affirming this means of teaching in the school life took time, until the schooling epoch, the nineteenth century, raises it to the level of dominant source of content. The affirmation of the modem concept of textbook has been studied by Otilia Dandara. The table below is presenting a synthesis of the views on the textbook from historic perspective [idem, p. 59- 61].

The textbook becomes an element of the didactic process in the context of the evolution of the educational practice and pedagogical theory. In different stages of social and school development, the textbook improves. Constituting a result of the synthesis of the local education experience, the textbooks were being adapted by the Moldovan scholars to the needs of the society and Christian cultural space. Consequently, the past textbooks fully reflect integral diversity and complexity of the didactic process and content of education. In the conditions of informational explosion and of a diversity of the sources of information, the textbook is still the pupils' main working tool. …

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