Academic journal article Review of Artistic Education

Comparing the Performance of Full-Time and Part-Time Painting Undergraduates in Nigeria - a Case of University of Benin, Nigeria

Academic journal article Review of Artistic Education

Comparing the Performance of Full-Time and Part-Time Painting Undergraduates in Nigeria - a Case of University of Benin, Nigeria

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

This study was carried out to compare the performance of Full-time and Parttime painting undergraduates in Nigeria with special focus on the University of Benin, Benin City Nigeria. Precisely, it was designed to find out if there was a difference in performance between Full-time and Part-time painting undergraduates in Nigeria?

Part-Time programmes are popular in most Nigerian universities. Some of the programmes are run as Sandwich Programmes (During long vacation), while others hold during the weekend. For the avoidance of doubt, Part-Time programmes in Fine and Applied Arts at the University of Benin, Benin City are run at the weekend, specifically Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays. It is also important to add that Part-Time programmes in Nigerian Universities have received large patronage, well established and are viable. It is expected that the study will give a graphic detail of the performance of the programme in the area of painting. The review was carried out under the following sub-headings: Is the Painter Bom or Made? ; Giftedness, Talent and Creativity; Overview of Painting and the Teacher Factor.

Is the Painter Born Or Made?

It is possible to assume that a group of individuals are talented, made and gifted and should be found only in Full-Time programmes. Mbahi (1992) observed that there are two views about the sources of artistic individuals, one is that artists are bom and not taught while the other says artists can be taught. He also observed that there is a contemporary view, which states that "artists are bom and developed" (Mbahi, 1992:28). He concluded by saying that most art educators hold the contemporary view that artists are bom and made. "Artists are bom with artistic capabilities which have to be developed through training, teaching and interest developed in the arts. Without adequate exposure to development opportunities, these talents could remain dormant and eventually waste away (Mbahi, 1992:28).

According to Mbahi, the contemporarists asserted that every child is naturally endowed or has an inherent creative ability, hence the claim that artists are bom, a position he describes as consonant with that of Lowenfeld and Read. He noted however that the contemporarists also believed that having been naturally endowed, his ability is like a blunt edge which requires to be sharpened through training, teaching and interest development in the arts in order to develop the artistic skill. The contemporarist also argued that some people with bare minimum of natural flare for art have succeeded in the art field because they have drive. They were also unanimous on the influence and indispensable role of the environment and art education. Locke (2002), also argued that artists are both bom and made; she stated that "like natural talent the vision is innate yet the way the vision comes to fruition depends upon the artists time and place, the surrounding artists tradition, training and life experience" (h ttp://www. rps.psu .edn/ p rob ing/a rtist. html)

Giftedness, Talent and Creativity

It would be necessary to differentiate between talent, giftedness and creativity. What distinguishes talent from giftedness according to Winner (1996) in Pariser and Zimmerman (2007) is gifted is associated with the individuals and his abilities in academic and artistic fields. They cited Lubart (1999) as defining creativity as the individual's capability to create work that is novel and appropriate. They also tried to differentiate talent from creativity by citing Csikszentmihalyi (1996) as asserting that talent focuses on one's ability to do something while Gamer (1996) explained that individuals who are talented could function within a well defined area of knowledge within a defined location.

Imonikebe (2010) has observed that the production of an artist has much do with creativity, being a vital ingredient for artistic excellence. Sullivan (2007), notes that there has been a general move by researchers from the question of what creativity is, and which is usually seen as biological constmct or what he termed a desirable disposition of the mind, to question about when it becomes manifest. …

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