Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Management Studies

A Proposed Compulsory Education Model for Street Children

Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Management Studies

A Proposed Compulsory Education Model for Street Children

Article excerpt

This paper attempts to describe a model for the education of street children. It is based on a research conducted in 2010. Studies have shown that child development requires good care right from the time of birth until adulthood. Because of this, this study was carried out to establish a model for the street children in Indonesia, more so in the major cities. It is true that, though living on street is not the best option; there are several factors which may cause a child to stay on the street. According to this study, it was found that: the street children are of three major groups, namely: 1. those who grow-up on streets (of the street children), 2. those from different backgrounds ending up on the street (on the street children), and 3. the vulnerable ones (vulnerable street children).

The first group is made-up of children who have taken long period of time while staying on the streets in most of the big cities and always sited along the major road sides in these cities. They have lived on the street for a long period without meeting their family members or even their closest relatives. Such children break-away from their families because of several family problems which include: divorce of the parents, poverty and lack of harmony in the family.

The second category is that of children still living with there family members or relatives in residential areas of low profile, perceived as improper places for settlement by such children. Such families are those facing economic difficulties; they end up having loose control over their children who end-up on streets looking for a living in order to support their families (parents). Due to the economic difficulties, these families are not able to pay for their children's tuition and also not able to pay for the other essential requirements. Most of the children from such families, end-up becoming school dropouts.

The third category comprises of the vulnerable children. This category is that of chidren hailing from poor families or from well to do families but they have acquired improper behaviours due neglect of the parents. In other words these children are still living with their parents but because of poverty (economic problems), busy schedule of both the parents or due to other reason the children end-up having no limits and some times underempowered due to lack of proper guidance, hence taking any direction which appears easy and simple for them. Such children are vulnerable to becoming street children more so at the time both the parents have no time spared for the family and also if the children feel some of their needs are not met they will end up all they can to achieve what is missing.

Besides family problems, there are also socio-environmental factors leading to the existence of street children, they include: limited awareness of the parents about the importance of education. This is seen from the point of view where by some parents take their children as assets who need to help the family. In the research findings, it was found that there children who after school come to the streets to seek for a living. From the socio-environmental perspective, there people taking advantage of such children. This condition does not benefit the government. Thus, in an effort to solve the problem, the government introduced a 9-years programme and a child protection programme in order to achieve the target of defending the children's rights.

Based on this, the Indonesian Judicial system sets two targets where by the law conditions the government to provide basic education to all citizens of school going age. In the first place for example, the national constitution section (6) chapter (1) emphasises that every citizen of 7 to 15 years of age must attend basic education. This constitutional quotation constitutes the society's trust which has been explained in the 1945 constitution article (31) chapter (1) and (2) which states that: Every citizen has the right to be taught or education; and government should organise and implement the same national education system guided by the constitution. …

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