Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Management Studies

Naga Insurgency in North East and India Security Concerns

Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Management Studies

Naga Insurgency in North East and India Security Concerns

Article excerpt

Nagaland is one of the few states of India facing political problem. This is compounded with various socio-cultures; ethnic, historical, political, religious and geographical factors. These factors are important dimensions to understand the present crises of state.

Various grophs are involved in the insurgency in northeast Indan, India's not the east states, which are connected to the rest India by a narrow strip of land known as the siliguri corridor. In the region sevrai armed faction operate. Some group call for a separate state, other for regional autonomy while some extreme groups demand complete independence. Northeast India consists at seven states, Assam Meghalaya, Tripura, Arunachal Pardesh, Mizoram Manipur and Nagaland.

Nagaland was constituted by the union government in September 1962 which was officially inaugurated on December 1, 1963. Nagaland occupies an area of 16,579Sq km and divided into eight districts with the state capital of Kohima. According to the Censes of 2001 the Nagaland total population 1,990,036, growth rate 64.41 %,( 1991 to 2001 ) density 120 per sq km, sex ratio 909:1000, literacy rate 67.11%. The state is bounded by Assam in the West, Arunachal Pradesh in North and Myanmar in the East and Manipur in the South. English is the official language of the state for administration and education. However the common language used by the tribal population is Nagamese e' English.

The entire Nagaland has almost in identical geological formation. In fact, Naga Hills is a continuation of the Himalayan folded mountains. Nagaland is fertile and hills are not rocky and well endowed with forest. The entire land is under two types of cultivation-Terraced and Jhum. Climatically, Nagaland has only two seasons-winter and Monsoon. The economy of the state of Nagaland still depends largely on agriculture. The basic resource of the state is forest and its products, animal's husbandry, small scale industries and tourism. The Nagaland population belongs to sixteen major Naga tribes on Indo-Mongoloid ethnic group, like the Angami, Ao, Kuki, Lotha Sema etc. These tribes migrated to the region in separate groups. Earlier the Naga people were animist, but today they are mostly Christians.

The Naga insurgency is India's longest running internal conflict. British formed the first Naga political organization called the 'Naga Club' in Kohima in 1918 with a view to assisting the deputy commissioner in understanding the socio-administrative problem of various tribes.

The Second World War made a marked impact on the Nagas. Political awakening, attraction for wealth and love for freedom infused the Nagas with the concept of complete independence. The conflict was existing in the minds of the politically conscious Nagas was exploited by the extremists among them like Angamin Zapu Phizo.

Inspired with the success of Pakistan movement a section of educatied youth of Christian missionaries and support of some foreign powers expressed their reservation against amalgamation of Naga territory with Indian Union. They also started pleading that Nagas are a separate Nation. (They converted the Naga Club into a political organization known as Naga National Council (NNC) submits a memorandum to the British Cabinet Mission on June, 19,. 1946, when it demanded autonomy ofNaga Hills. Their demands were:-

(a) The NNC stands for solidarity ofNaga tribes, including those in the un-administered areas.

(b) The NNC strongly protests against the grouping of Assam with Bengal.

(c) The Naga Hills should be constitutionally included in autonomous Assam in India, with local Autonomy and due safeguard for the interest of the Nagas.

(d) The Naga tribes should have a separate electorate.

Insurgency under phizo

However, insurgency came to the Naga Hills much later, under the aegis of the NNC led by the legendary Angami Zapu Phizo, who raised the banner of revolt against the Indian government on August 14, 1947. …

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