Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Evaluation of Biochemical Parameters in the Blood of Adolescent Boys and Girls

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Evaluation of Biochemical Parameters in the Blood of Adolescent Boys and Girls

Article excerpt

Introduction

A great amount of researches indicate the correlation of lipoprotein and other biochemical indicators, such as the C-reactive protein with the appearance and prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) (Baigent et al, 2010; Bittner et al 2002). The cardiovascular diseases that connect to the lipid profile of each person is the most common condition leading to the death in America (Gao & Yuan 2010). The beginning of that pathogenic situation begins from childhood (Bahas-Nakash et al 2010; Chae et al 2010). However, it is highly recommended that prevention should start from that age (Bao et al 1994). More specifically, it appears that lack of exercise or decreased physical activity is the main reason for the appearance of cardiovascular and other diseases in childhood (Despres et al 1990; Hemandez et al 1999; Jago et al 2010) . As a person grows, these ten indicators become more aggravating (Bittner et al 2002; Kelley & Kelley 2008) . That is the reason why many centers around the world recommend preventive exercising programs for children to achieve the decrease and control of these biochemical indicators (lipoproteins of high and low frequency, C-reactive protein, triglycerides, natriuretic peptide and more) that are responsible for the appearance of various diseases, during childhood as well as during adolescence when the danger increases (Torrance et al 2007; Kelley & Kelley 2008) . There is a reverse relation between normal activity and the factors that are responsible for the appearance of the coronary disease (Blair 1997; Lee et al 2001) .

Therefore, in bibliography there are many controversial researches, regarding with physical exercise and its contribution in the decrease of LDL-C, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, triglycerides, and other factors (Kelley & Kelley 2005; Twisk et al 2000). In many cases aerobics are highly suggested and In some others a way of exercise that combines aerobics and weight-lifting is suggested (Chae et al 2010; Krämer et al 2009; Lee et al 2010). Simultaneously, there are many referenced on the appropriate time and frequency of exercise especially for kids. Particularly, it is mentioned that the appropriate time is 40 minutes or more and the appropriate frequency is 5 times per week (Bahas-Nakash et al 2010) so that hard exercise can contribute in the prevention of the factors that were mentioned before. Furthermore, it is mentioned that 30 minutes of physical exercise per day significantly contributes in the prevention of the previously mentioned diseases for persons over 2 years old (Epstein et al 2001). Finally it is marked that physical activity during school has no contribution in that prevention, maybe because of the short duration, small intensity and the low frequency (Dobbins et al 2009; Pate et al 2006). For the reasons above, it is thought necessary to examine the effect of the exercise on the biochemical indicators that are related with the cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases, on kids during the transitive period of adolescence. Regarding with the comparison of athletic activity during school and intense athletic activity on high level there will be an appropriate separation in order to examine that factor as well.

According to the above, the purpose of that research is the evaluation and examination of the biochemical indicators that are related with the other diseases during adolescence and their relation with the exercise.

Method

Participants

At this research participated 233 children in total, that were separated in two groups: A) The control group was consisted of 120 children (60 boys and 60 girls), at the age of 14,5±2,3 and 13,8 ±1,9 years old. The members of this group did not perform any kind of exercise on regular bases (sedentary life), except from physical exercise during school. B) The experimental group was consisted from 113 children (55 boys and 58 girls) at the age of 14,4±1,9 and 13,2±2,1 years old). …

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