Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Application of Push & Pull Theory in Island Sport Tourism: A Study of Sipadan Island, Sabah

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Application of Push & Pull Theory in Island Sport Tourism: A Study of Sipadan Island, Sabah

Article excerpt

Introduction

Sport tourism is a form of activity that involves people travelling away from primary residence for the purpose of participating in a sport activity for recreation or competition. It is also include travelling for the purpose of watching sport events or visiting sport attractions at a specific time (Gibson, 1998). Specifically, Hinch & Higham (2011) suggested there were two types of sport tourism; active sport tourism and passive sport tourism. Active sport tourism is related to the participation of tourists to the sporting experiences while passive sport tourism concerned with the activity of attending and observing the sporting events (Hall, 1992).

As participants are the main character in the active sport tourism activity, it is important to recognize who this people are. Participants are referred in active sport tourism literature as individuals who travel for the purpose of pursuing physical involvement in the sporting experiences (Hinch & Higham, 2011; Bujdoso & David, 2013) and as people whose purpose of travelling is to engage in leisure-based activity while on vacation (Gibson, 1998). Gammon & Robinson (2003) make the distinction of participants by focusing on their primary motivation for travelling using the hard and softdefinition of sport tourism. The hard definition is related to the two types of participants at competitive sporting events, namely active and passive sport tourists. Meanwhile, there is only the primarily active participant in the softdefinition which is known as active sport tourist who engages in the recreational sport.

People travel for several different purposes. The sport tourists are without exceptions possess diverse reasons for travelling. Gibson (2004) mentioned that the reason why people choose to travel can be simply explained from the 'motivation' point of view. As hard as it is to identify the diversity of motivation in the general tourism, same scenario occurs in the context of sport tourism due to reason not all sport tourist perceive motives in the same way. Travel motivation has been discussed by many scholars using various approaches (Cohen, 1972; Pizam, 1999; Crompton & McKay, 1997; Dann, 1981; Dolinting, et. al, 2013; Barkhordari et. al 2014). Cohen (1972) viewed travel motivation to be a response that is taken due to one's desire while Pizam (1999), delineates travel destination as "a set of needs and attitudes predisposes a person to act in a specific touristic goal-directed way". Another particular explanation of travel motivation was done by Crompton & McKay (1997). They defined it using the concept of homeostasis. According to this concept, psychological strains (disequilibrium) within an individual exist due to one's desires or needs in life. In order to neutralize the disequilibrium, a decision to travel to fulfil the desire and need is made. For example, travel is a response to the desire for relaxation. In other words, the need for relaxations can be fed via travelling activity.

Dann (1977) came up with a definition of travel motivation as "a meaningful state of mind which adequately disposes an individual or group individual to travel". He simplified travel motivation by making distinction on two things, in which he came up with specific terms for his idea namely, push and pull factors (Dann, 1981). From Dann's perspective of travel motivation, push and pull factors can be used as a tool to explain what makes people travel and what makes them choose a particular destination over another (McCabe, 2000; Snepeger et al., 2006). Dann also rationalized that the descriptions of these two factors could lead to explanation on overall travel motivation. These factors may also provide insight to the decision making process of the traveller (Kim et al., 2012). The push factor which is also known as motives can be understood by taking the following scenario as an example; individual need to be motivated (having desire) by something in order for him to travel. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.