Academic journal article South Asian Studies

The Homeland Security Initiatives for Pakistan: A Grand Strategy

Academic journal article South Asian Studies

The Homeland Security Initiatives for Pakistan: A Grand Strategy

Article excerpt

Abstract

The homeland security system is a concept born to prevent the threat of terrorism and all types of crime in the urban city structure of the developed world. The power and economy of the globalized world paved the way for safe cites to attain sustainable development through communication technologies and modern strategies. In post '9/11' scenario the world encountered with the threat of terrorism that forced the endangered countries to launch collective efforts against the growing threat of terrorism. The homeland security strategy is a multi-faced task to provide safety and security to our cities and sustain its development. It encompasses the basic principles of partnership, convenience, sharing network, transparency and follow-up. Pakistan is in dire need to opt such strategies of safety and security to sustain its economic development and its citizens' security. The study will discuss a proposed strategy of homeland security for Pakistan keeping its focus on both approaches security and safety. It also studies the U.S., U.K. and the Indian models of homeland security.

Key Words: Security, terrorism, safety, city, Pakistan, counter-terrorism, homeland

Homeland Security: Pakistan

Domestic Dimensions of Pakistan's Security

Security is the only conception through which, the national security problem can be approached. It consists of not only military, but also political, economic, social, humanitarian and human rights and ecological aspects. Security emerged as one of main concerns of the contemporary world but due to its complexity and seamlessness the concept remained neglected. The notion of security is conceptually weak or undefined that needs the support of other approaches as Realism and Liberalism. It is a difficult concept as compare to other concepts of social sciences as power, justice, peace, equality and freedom due to its ambiguity. It has to be defined under an area of concern rather than a precise condition. The element of security has been defined by W.B. Gallia as an 'essentially contested concept' due to its relational attitude with other factors and un-rationality of meaning and application. As Buzan explains that security is a relational phenomenon, it involves not only the capabilities, desires and fears of individual states, but also the capabilities, desires and fears of the other state with which they interact. He further explains that,

"If the security of each is related to the security of all, then nothing can be fully understood without understanding everything. The reality of security interdependence is unavoidable. Consequently, the only hope of defining manageable subjects for study that neither lose, nor succumb to, the vital sense of whole, is to find a hierarchy of levels within the holistic perspective. Each of theses levels must identify durable, significant, and substantially self-contained features of the security problem" (Buzan & Rizvi, 1986:5).

According to United Nations, security is a condition in which states consider that there is no danger of military attack, political pressure or economic coercion that they are able to pursue freely their own progress. Another perspective by Michael H. H. Louw of security to include a nation's traditional defence policy and also the non-military actions of a state to ensure its total capacity to survive as a political entity in order to exert influence and to carry out its internal and international objectives (Malik, 2003:2-3).

Pakistan's domestic security concerns are defined by its vulnerabilities and threats to its existence due to its geopolitics, location, political instability, economics and history. It is multi-nation state comprising on four distinct nationalities; it is extremely difficult for them to agree on what is national? There fore, Rizvi identifies three interlinked components of the state, ideology, the sovereignty/territory and the political institution to understand Pakistan's national security structure. …

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