Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

The Internal Political Situation in the Ottoman Empire during the First Balkan War on Materials of Tatar Journalists

Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

The Internal Political Situation in the Ottoman Empire during the First Balkan War on Materials of Tatar Journalists

Article excerpt

Abstract

The relevance of the investigated problem is caused by the need of the coverage of little-known episodes in the Russian-Turkish relations, which is the period of the Balkan wars. The purpose of the article is to analyze the materials of the Tatar journalists, who worked in Istanbul in the first months of the Balkan War (November-December 1912) and studied he political situation in the Ottoman Empire. We use historical and situational method, as a leading approach to the investigation of this problem which involves the study of historical facts in the context of the era being studied in conjunction with the "neighboring" events and facts. Having studied the materials of the Tatar journalists that were in Istanbul during the Balkan War, we can conclude that they had close ties with their local counterparts, as well as many Ottoman politicians, and have seen, and possibly were the members of the political struggle in the capital of the Ottoman Empire. The materials may be useful for a deeper and more accurate coverage of history, both Turkey and the Muslims of Russia.

Keywords: Balkan War, Ottoman Empire, Turkey, F. Karimi, "Vakyt." "Yoldyz" "Ittihad ve Terakki" (Young Turks), G. Kamal

1. Introduction

The relevance of the investigated problem is caused by the need of the coverage of the little-known episodes in the Russian-Turkish relations and the role of Muslims living in the Russian Empire in the overall picture of the Russian-Ottoman relations in the early XX century. The relationships of Volga-Ural Tatars and Anatolian Turks living in Russia have a long history, from the time of the Golden Horde - the Kazan Khanate and the Ottoman Empire. After the fall of Kazan and other Tatar khanate the Ottoman Turkey was seen as a significant part of the Tatars stronghold of Islam as a possible liberator, an ally in the fight against the Russian autocracy. However, with the course of time many members of the educated part of the Volga and Ural Tatars became more sober in the assessment of the possibility of a weakening of the Ottoman Empire, but nevertheless cultural ties between the Volga-Ural region of the Ottoman Empire continued to persist. A new surge of interest in Russian Turkish Muslims is associated with the Tanzimat period of the reforms undertaken by the Ottoman authorities in the middle of the XIX century in order to overcome the backwardness of the Ottoman Empire from the advanced European countries. The events associated with the Young Turk Revolution and the reign of the Young Turks, i.e. the last decade of the Ottoman Empire (1908-1918) were of particular interest with Russian Muslims.

It can be said that the beginning of the Balkan wars exploded the Tatar community. Catastrophic defeat of Turkish troops in the first weeks of the war and the loss of almost all European areas, except for a few besieged cities seemed like a complete collapse of the once mighty Ottoman Empire. Not limiting reprints and references some of the most readable publication send its correspondents to the area of operations. But arriving in Turkey journalists began to describe not only military action. They found themselves in an acute internal political struggle, which was in the Ottoman Empire at the time.

It should be noted that the beginning of the twentieth century the history of the Tatar people was marked by an unprecedented rise in almost all areas - strengthening the position of the national capital, the movement for reforms in education, the flourishing of national culture, the rise of social movement. "The emergence of the periodical press, theater, success in publishing, various kinds of national art in the field of public education, and so on brought the Tatar people on the high road of universal, but at the same time, the original development" (Amirhanov, 2006). The establishment of Tatar periodicals played a key role in the development of the Tatar nation. "The emergence of national periodicals was an unprecedented achievement for the acquisition of the Tatar people, awakened to active social life thanks primarily to the revolution of 1905-1907. …

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