Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

Political Factors of Process of European Integration of Turkey

Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

Political Factors of Process of European Integration of Turkey

Article excerpt

Abstract

For decades Turkey has been one of the most important issues of European policy in the European Union (EU). This issue has no specific solutions. The purpose of this article is to identify and analyze the factors that impede the entry of Turkey into the European Union, as well as the establishment and explanation of the significant moments in the relations between the parties, which turned out to be the key ones in the world politics. The leading method in the research is a historical-comparative one, which on the basis of selected sources allows to compare and analyze the different milestones in the development of relations between the EU and Turkey. The article presents the analysis of the peculiarities of the relations of the European Union and Turkey, as in the general political aspect, and in some areas, taking into account the fact that each of the parties pursuing its own benefit and purpose. The data of the article may be useful in researches connected with the political history of Turkey as well as in contemporary socio-political discussions about a potential place of Turkey in the EU.

Keywords: EU, Europeanization, the Republic of Turkey, Copenhagen criteria, summit, agreement

1. Introduction

1.1 Importance of the Problem

Turkey persistently tries to join the European Union for over half a century. Within this time Turkey has undertaken a number of reforms in the political, economic and social spheres. It is necessary to note that as a result of these actions Turkey became closer to the EU, but the prospect of its full membership in the organization is still illusory. Only by 1999, Turkey managed to achieve recognition of the status of the EU candidate (Hajiyev, 2006). However, the steps for the further rapprochement of the parties have been postponed on a number of reasons. At the same time active reforms in the country made it possible to start in 2005 negotiations on Turkey's accession to the EU, which marked a new stage of development of modern interaction between the parties. The relations between Turkey and the EU (up to 1992 UES) are one of the most important and urgent items of Turkey's policy (Ortayli, 2011). This is due to the fact that Turkey's attempts to become a full member of the EU suggest that the country's policy focused on Europe is a priority (Ezegodnyi, 2015).

1.2 Explore Importance of the Problem

The annual "progress reports" issued by EU experts give the analysis of the level of preparedness of the countries - candidates for EU membership to become full members of the organization. The report presented in 2011 put forward the position of the EU to the countries willing to join the EU (Ezegodnyi, 2015). This does not mean that the conditions for all countries seeking to enter the EU are the same. For each country a separate list of requirements, taking into account the economic and political situation in the country is set up. There are Copenhagen criteria used in the report for characterization the prospects of Turkey's accession (Ziganshina, 2005). At the Helsinki Summit in 1999 there were announced additional requirements for Turkey. The main point was the decision of the problems with Cyprus peacefully. The EU Council also guaranteed assistance in resolving this issue at the support of the United Nations.

1.3 Criteria for Entry into the EU

1. The deficiency of the state budget shouldn't exceed 3% of GDP

2. The public debt shouldn't exceed 60% of GDP.

3. The state has to participate within two years in settlement of exchange rates and adhere to rate of national currency on the predetermined level.

4. The rate of inflation shouldn't exceed more than 1,5% of average value of three countries of the European Union with the fixed prices.

5. Long-term interest rates for the state bonds shouldn't exceed more than for 2% average value of the corresponding rates in the countries with the lowest inflation (Ezegodnyi, 2015). …

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