Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

To the Problem of Understanding Historical Processes in the Context of Muslim Society Modernization Processes by the Example of H.-G. Gabashy's Research Works

Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

To the Problem of Understanding Historical Processes in the Context of Muslim Society Modernization Processes by the Example of H.-G. Gabashy's Research Works

Article excerpt

Abstract

The urgency of the problem studied can be explained by the fact that the foundation of religious schools in the Russian Federation in 1990s lead to the problem of secular-theological disciplines proportion in the curriculum. In this respect we have to examine the experience of teaching historical disciplines in mektebe and medrese in the Russian Empire in late XIX- early XX centuries. The aim of the article is studying creative heritage and historical views of one of the most prominent educators and public men of the Inner Russia - Hasan-Gaty Gabashy. The leading approaches to the study of the problem are the historical-biographical method and the essential-substantial analysis. The interpretation of the World History in the Inner Russia Muslim schools textbooks in early XX century, according to H.-G. Gabashy's views, except the prophets and the Arabic Caliphate history, was biased, fragmented and highly didactic. The history of China, Middle Asia and the whole Arabic-Muslim world is given in the context of cultural-religious contacts, while the western Christian world events stay untouched in the works of the Tatar-Muslim investigator. The current article information may contribute to further study of national historiography and public opinion of Muslim people in the Middle Volga Region and the Ural Region.

Keywords: World History, Jadidism, historiography of Muslims, tutorial, educational guidance, modernization

1. Introduction

1.1 The Urgency of the Problem

The foundation of religious schools in the Russian Federation in 1990s lead to the problem of secular-theological disciplines proportion in the curriculum. The analysis of the curriculum taught in the Middle Volga Region and the Ural Region Muslim schools in late XIX - early XX cc (in the period of the Inner Russia Muslim society transformation under the influence of the Russian Empire modernization processes) is of great methodological value. The World History knowledge can further broadening students' outlook, and the discipline mentioned was taught (more or less) in various school types.

The Inner Russia Muslims at the beginning of the XX century had a stable educational system consisting of a primary school (mektebe) and a confessional middle school (medrese). The curriculum of so-called cadimistic (traditional) medrese represented a complex of Koran sciences with the basic principles formed in the Middle Ages. The reference book on the World History in the Muslim world was "Tarikh ar-rusul wa-l-muluk" ("Istoriya prorokov i tzarey") by At-Tabary, 914/1960. According to the writer, the World History starts from the world creation and includes biographies of prophets, ancient rulers, Sasanid Shahs, prophet Muhammad and four pious Caliphs. Later different Muslim historians supplemented the book with new details. Tatar Muslim historians held to the methodological scheme mentioned above till the early XX century.

The Tatar educator and scientist Jemalutdin Walidy analyzed the level of knowledge of medrese students and noted that shakirds (students) knew Koran and its interpretations quite well, as well as a lot of mythological stories and legends. However, they had no idea about any secular science (Walidy, 1925).

The Jadidistic (reformist) movement in the system of Muslim education appeared in the 80s of the XIX century. A wide complex of secular disciplines including a historical course was added to the curriculum. The lack of basic textbooks became a serious obstacle. So, in 1890s reformist medrese teachers started writing and publishing their own textbooks. According to P. Valiullin's counting, in late XIX- early XX cc 41 new textbooks in History were published (Valiullin, 2001). The structure and content of the textbooks met educational demands of that period.

The most popular textbooks were "Tatar tarihy" by G. Battal ("Istoriya tatar") in 3 editions (Battal, 1912), A.-Z. Walidy «Turky wa tatar tarihy» («Istoriya tyurkov i tatar") in 3 editions (Walidy, 1912), H. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.